Implementation of PAKEM to Improving the Ability Beginning of Reading in the Kindergaten Group A
ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya 29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3 Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis : Isabella Hasiana
Education isÂ theÂ businessÂ consciously andÂ plannedÂ to bring aboutÂ an atmosphere ofÂ learning andÂ the learning processÂ fun.Â Reading skillsÂ are the basis forÂ variousÂ fields of study.Â IfÂ school-ageÂ child inÂ the beginningÂ did not immediatelyÂ have the abilityÂ to read,Â then it willÂ experience a lot ofÂ difficultiesÂ in learningÂ a variety ofÂ majorsÂ inÂ the nextÂ classes.Â Therefore,Â childrenÂ should beÂ expected toÂ learn to readÂ so he can readÂ to learn.Â At theÂ early childhoodÂ levelÂ courseÂ learning processÂ in reading the beginning ofÂ Elementary SchoolÂ levelÂ are not the same.
The learning processÂ being usedÂ areÂ active andÂ funÂ so thatÂ childrenÂ don’t feelÂ burdened.Â In addition,Â with this methodÂ can increaseÂ the motivation ofÂ students toÂ continue to learn.Â The purpose of this research is to know the implementation of PAKEM in improving reading skills beginning at kindergaten Group A. The researchÂ approachÂ used is aÂ researchÂ experimentÂ withÂ pre-experimental design.Â Subjects inÂ this researchÂ isÂ Â group A ofÂ kindergatenÂ studentsÂ as many as 25Â students.Â The dataÂ collectedÂ was analyzedÂ usingÂ T-testÂ ofÂ the observationsÂ the overallÂ indicator isÂ used, theÂ change occurredÂ beginningÂ reading skillsÂ before and afterÂ usingÂ the PAKEM.Â So itÂ can beÂ inferred thatÂ occurredÂ beginningÂ reading skillsÂ development ofÂ childrenÂ afterÂ implementing PAKEM.
Keywords : Beginning of Reading, PAKEM,Â Early Childhood
My name is Isabella Hasiana. I am a female. I am born was 1980, 16 October in Surabaya. I am work as a lecturer in Early Childhood Education, the Faculty of Education ofÂ PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya University
Education isÂ aÂ plannedÂ andÂ consciousÂ effortÂ to bring aboutÂ an atmosphere ofÂ learning andÂ the learning processÂ so thatÂ learnersÂ are actively developingÂ the potential forÂ her toÂ haveÂ aÂ religious,Â spiritual powerÂ of self-control, personality, intelligence,Â morals,Â as wellÂ asÂ the necessary skillsÂ themselvesÂ and society.Â Education in Indonesia is composed of formal education which was held in schools.Â The lineÂ it hadÂ aÂ secondaryÂ education,Â starting fromÂ elementary education, secondary education,Â toÂ higher education.Â While the formal education such as various courses, music courses, among others, tutoring etc. (URwww.wikipedi.org).
According to the statutes of the national education system the number 20 in 2003 (www.mahkamahinstitusi.go.id) are described further in chapter three on the principle of conducting education on article four five-paragraph mention that education organized by developing a culture of reading, writing, and numeracy for all citizens.
Reading skillsÂ are the basic forÂ many fieldsÂ of studyÂ can master.Â IfÂ school-ageÂ child inÂ the beginningÂ did not immediatelyÂ have the abilityÂ to read, thenÂ heÂ will likelyÂ experience a lot ofÂ difficultiesÂ in learningÂ a variety ofÂ majorsÂ inÂ the nextÂ classes.Â Therefore,Â childrenÂ should beÂ learning to readÂ so heÂ can readÂ to learn (Lerner,Â 1989:349).Â ReadÂ the beginningÂ stagesÂ generallyÂ startingÂ sinceÂ childrenÂ enterÂ gradeÂ oneÂ SD (elementary school), whichÂ at the timeÂ was aboutÂ sevenÂ years old.Â The main goal ofÂ readingÂ the beginningÂ is so thatÂ the child canÂ recognizeÂ writingÂ as a symbolÂ or symbolÂ languagesÂ so thatÂ children canÂ voiceÂ thoseÂ writingsÂ (Wardani,Â 1995:56).
The results of the study are expected in learning reading beginning in grade level early childhood education, among others, to be able to read aloud the syllable with the proper pronunciation, read aloud a simple sentence with proper intonation and pronunciation, read smoothly a few simple sentences consisting of 3-5 words with the right intonation, as well as reading the poetry of children consisting of 2-4 lines with the right intonation and pronunciation (DepdiknasÂ :Â 2007).
Based on the above description of some authors conclude that the ability to read is not an absolute requirement that must be mastered if students want to enter primary school, but it would be nice if early students had already provided the ability to recognize letters starting from kindergarten.Â This is due toÂ start fromÂ first gradeÂ elementary schoolÂ studentsÂ alreadyÂ taught some of theÂ subjects that require reading skills.Â Students who haveÂ theÂ abilityÂ from the beginning ofÂ the basicÂ educationÂ level,Â then it will beÂ better equippedÂ to followÂ the lessonsÂ inÂ the nextÂ level of education.
KnowledgeÂ about reading the beginning is crucial to give the childrenÂ becauseÂ by readingÂ the beginning ofÂ themÂ can communicate with friendsÂ orÂ peopleÂ around them.The abilityÂ to readÂ is one ofÂ the skills thatÂ need to be developedÂ in kindergarten,Â in addition to theÂ aspect ofÂ the ability ofÂ speaking, listeningÂ and writing.Â The courage toÂ speak up,Â ask questionsÂ and expressÂ the ideaÂ strongly supportÂ inÂ the learning process.Â Need to develop the ability to read the beginning of the early (http://eprints.ums.ac.id/25320/2/BAB_I.pdf)
Homes, schools andÂ the environmentÂ is a source ofÂ learningÂ for children toÂ grow and develop.Â ThereforeÂ the time ofÂ child developmentÂ to getÂ the optimalÂ learningÂ courseÂ must be accompanied byÂ a fun wayÂ and in accordance withÂ the characteristicsÂ of early childhood.
EarlyÂ observationsÂ conducted byÂ the authorÂ in one of the kindergartens where students Â areÂ encouraged to readÂ the beginning ofÂ theÂ stillÂ with theÂ conventional way.Â In thisÂ learning, teacher centered to studentsÂ areÂ indeedÂ able to readÂ but notÂ understand about theÂ writings orÂ the meaning ofÂ the word.Â It isÂ apparentÂ from theÂ 25 students,Â only 3Â students wereÂ able to readÂ and understandÂ the meaning ofÂ those words and 22Â studentsÂ can read.
To solve theÂ problemÂ above,Â then neededÂ anÂ interestingÂ learning, which canÂ make it easier forÂ childrenÂ to developÂ the abilityÂ to readÂ the beginning of theÂ courseÂ in accordanceÂ with the principle ofÂ learningÂ in kindergarten is a Â learning with playingÂ andÂ playingÂ with learning.Â In other words, teacherÂ holdsÂ a fairlyÂ important andÂ strategic inÂ improving theÂ reading skillsÂ of students.
ThenÂ learningÂ forÂ beginningÂ reading skills is done withe the PAKEM approach wihich is a learning approach that focuses on active learning, effective, crative and fun.Â Learning is fun for students can improve motivation to continue learning during his life (Barkley, 2010:9).Â BrophyÂ (2004:4)Â explains that motivated theÂ studentsÂ in a classÂ can improve enthusiasm,Â attention,Â student involvementÂ and effortÂ students to learn.Â Through the efforts ofÂ theÂ kindergarten studentsÂ are expected to haveÂ a funÂ learning experience, motivatedÂ to learnÂ andÂ continue toÂ cause problemsÂ in theÂ stages ofÂ learning to readÂ next.
This is becauseÂ reading isÂ aÂ very basicÂ abilityÂ to learnÂ a lot of knowledgeÂ about the worldÂ outside.Â In addition, the ability to read basic aspects to also become a developing other abilities (in Mulyati, 2013:1).Â OnÂ kindergartenÂ readingÂ skills,Â focusd onÂ readingÂ the beginning.Â According toÂ TampubolonÂ (inÂ Mulyati,Â 2013:1)Â “readingÂ earlyalreadyÂ need to be givenÂ as part ofÂ the effortÂ to growÂ interest andÂ habit of readingÂ in children, andÂ at the same timeÂ prepare itÂ enteringÂ primary education”.Â TampubolonÂ furtherÂ (inÂ Mulyati,Â 2013:2)Â also explainsÂ that what is meantÂ by readingÂ earlyÂ isÂ readingÂ taughtÂ inÂ hard-wiredÂ (formally)Â to the children ofÂ preÂ school.Â The child is taught to read early generally more advanced in school than children who had never obtained read early. ”
TheÂ researchÂ approachÂ usedÂ is the type ofÂ researchÂ experiments withÂ usingÂ designÂ pre-experimentalÂ oneÂ groupÂ pretests-posttestÂ design.Â InÂ this research, there wasÂ aÂ preÂ testÂ givenÂ beforeÂ treatmentÂ so thatÂ the results ofÂ the treatmentÂ can beÂ more accurate.
ExperimentalÂ researchÂ can be said a research method used to locate a particular treatment influence against the other in conditions completely (Sugiyono, 2012:72).
The use ofÂ thisÂ researchÂ approachÂ is usedÂ in order toÂ achieve theÂ research objectives, namelyÂ to know theÂ influence ofÂ the PAKEMÂ approachÂ in improvingÂ reading skillsÂ a beginning.Â This researchÂ is applied toÂ Â group A ofÂ KINDERGARTENÂ as many as 25Â students.Â Method of collecting data in this study, namelyyang done using observation of participation (participant observasion) is a method of data collection used to gather research data through observation and sensing where the observer or researcher is really involved in the everyday life of the respondents.Â The secondÂ method isÂ by usingÂ the test.Â The first thing thatÂ is doneÂ in the execution ofÂ experimentsÂ usingÂ single-subjectÂ designÂ is doneÂ by doing aÂ preliminaryÂ observationÂ to the studentsÂ to see how manyÂ studentsÂ who are not yetÂ able to read.Â After the test was given to a subject that has not been given the treatment (pretest) to see the ability to read the beginning of the data obtained After students who have problems in reading skills beginning, then given treatment that is teaching reading beginning which is based on the EXISTING approach.Â AfterÂ aÂ treatmentÂ to studentsÂ who have problemsÂ in readingÂ at theÂ beginning, thenÂ provideÂ test againÂ to find outÂ beginningÂ reading skillsÂ of students.Â In theÂ posttestÂ will beÂ obtained asÂ aÂ result of theÂ experimentsÂ in whichÂ the abilityÂ to readÂ the beginning ofÂ studentsÂ increases orÂ no changeÂ at all.Â Then compareÂ theÂ O1Â and O2Â to determineÂ how bigÂ the differencesÂ that ariseÂ ifÂ thereÂ as a result ofÂ the variableÂ for whichÂ experimentation.Â AfterÂ theÂ comparison, thenÂ theÂ dataÂ were analyzedÂ usingÂ t-test (Sugiono, 2012:166)
From the results ofÂ the initialÂ observationÂ that has been madeÂ toÂ 25 students,Â only 2students wereÂ able to readÂ the beginning.Â Based on the results of observation, then the corresponding pretest reading skills a beginning.Â From the results ofÂ preÂ testÂ has been done, then onlyÂ 3 childrenÂ whoÂ can read,Â so itÂ needs to be givenÂ preferential treatmentÂ in the form ofÂ learningÂ to readÂ the beginning ofÂ usingÂ the EXISTINGÂ methods.
Analysis Research with Uji T
Paired Samples Test
|Paired Differences||T||df||Sig. (2-tailed)|
|Mean||Std. Deviation||Std. Error Mean||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
|Pair 1||pretest – posttest||-5.84000||2.28546||.45709||-6.78339||-4.89661||-12.776||24||.000|
From the results of the above calculation, then obtained sig (0.000) < 0.05 so Ha then accepted. And the hypothesis Â “application of the PAKEM can improve reading skills beginning on group A” received.
From the results ofÂ the analysisÂ that has been done, then itÂ can be seen thatÂ the abilityÂ to readÂ the beginning ofÂ theÂ studentÂ can be done throughÂ models ofÂ learning that isÂ fun.Â Students do notÂ feel burdenedÂ byÂ a monotonousÂ norÂ of classicalÂ learning,but it can beÂ done byÂ playingÂ while learningÂ and learningÂ while playing.Â This is dueÂ to the child’s playÂ isÂ an activityÂ which isÂ attachedÂ directly onÂ the natureÂ and needs ofchild development.Â The play is also defined as an activity that’s fun, spontaneous, focused on the process, the rewards are member of active, fun, and flexible. The more an activity has the characteristics, means of activity that increasingly is playing (Solehuddin, 1996 in URhttp://paudjateng.xahzgs.com/2015/04/metode-pembelajaran-paud-yang-efektif.html).
Reading skillsÂ are the basic forÂ variousÂ fields of study.Â IfÂ school-ageÂ child inÂ the beginningÂ did not immediatelyÂ have the abilityÂ to read,Â then it willÂ experience a lot ofÂ difficultiesÂ in learningÂ a variety ofÂ majorsÂ in the nextÂ classes.Â Therefore,Â childrenÂ should beÂ learning to readÂ so heÂ can readÂ to learn (Lerner,Â 1989:349).Â The abilityÂ to readÂ not onlyÂ allows one toÂ improveÂ skillsÂ andÂ mastery ofÂ a wide range ofÂ academics,Â but also allowsÂ participatingÂ inÂ socio-culturalÂ life, politics,Â and fulfillÂ emotional needsÂ (Mercer, 1979:197).Â ReadingÂ is also beneficialÂ for recreationÂ or to gainÂ pleasure.Â Given theÂ multitude ofÂ benefits ofÂ reading skills, thenÂ theÂ childÂ mustÂ learn to readÂ and difficultiesÂ learning to readÂ ifÂ canÂ need to be addressedÂ as soon as possible.Â ReadingÂ isÂ in fact a form of communication.Â SoedarsoÂ (1983)Â suggests thatÂ reading isÂ aÂ complexÂ activityÂ that requiresÂ a large number ofÂ separateÂ actions, includingÂ the use ofÂ notions, fantasies, observations,Â and memory.
PAKEMÂ approachÂ applied in improving reading skillsÂ thisÂ isÂ the beginning ofÂ manifestation ofÂ active learningÂ (active learning).Â Therefore,Â theÂ teacherÂ was supposed toÂ implementÂ active learning as a foundation early in the performance of the PAKEM.Â Do not let theÂ conventionalÂ learningÂ methods areÂ maintained,Â regardless of the development potential of the students as the provision in the face of time future. PAKEM is able toÂ giveÂ attention toÂ this aspect of the prsentation of learning.The presentationÂ inÂ this learning processÂ can be doneÂ with theÂ troubleshooting,Â curatÂ opinions,Â learn by doingÂ (learning by doing), usingÂ many methods areÂ adapted to theÂ context,Â orÂ group work.
Many factorsÂ affectÂ the abilityÂ to read, either read the beginning as well as advanced reading (comprehension). Factors that affect reading beginning according to Lamb and Arnold, 1976 (in Rahim,2006:16-29)Â are:Â (1).Â physiologicalÂ factorsÂ that include physical health, neurogical, and consideration of gender. FatigueÂ is also anÂ unfavorableÂ conditionÂ for chlidren to learn, especially reading. Some experts suggested that the neurological limitations (ex. Various defects of the brain) andÂ the lack of physicallyÂ is one of theÂ factors that canÂ causeÂ aÂ childÂ to failÂ in improvingÂ reading skillsÂ and their understanding.Â Disorders of theÂ toolÂ talk,Â hearing,Â andÂ visionÂ canÂ slow theÂ progress of theÂ study.Â Although itÂ has noÂ interferenceÂ onÂ vision,Â several children experience difficulty learning to read. It can happen because children experience difficulty learning to read. It can happen because the children experience difficult to learning is not develop. Example, their abilityÂ in distinguishingÂ symbols of molds, such as letters, numbers, and words. For exampleÂ the student can not distinguishÂ b,Â pÂ and d.Â Differences of hearing (auditory discrimination) is the ability to listen to the similarities and differences of the sound of the languange as an important factor in determining a chlids reading readiness (Lamb and Arnold, 1976); (2)Â the intellectualÂ factors, defined byÂ HeinzÂ thinkingÂ as an activityÂ that comprisesÂ the essentialÂ understandingÂ ofÂ the givenÂ situationÂ andÂ respondedÂ appropriatelyÂ (PageÂ et al,Â 1980).Â Associated withÂ the explanationÂ above,Â HeinzÂ WechsterÂ (inÂ Harris andÂ Sipay, 1980)Â argued thatÂ intelligenceÂ isÂ the ability ofÂ theÂ individualÂ to actÂ globallyÂ in accordanceÂ with the objective,Â rational thinking, andÂ doingÂ it effectivelyÂ to the environment.Â In General, theÂ intelligenceÂ of the childÂ are not fullyÂ influenced theÂ successfulÂ or whetherÂ childrenÂ in reading theÂ beginning.Â TeachingÂ method ofÂ teacherÂ factors, procedures,Â and capabilities ofÂ teachersÂ alsoÂ affectsÂ the abilityÂ to readÂ the beginning ofÂ the child;Â (3) environmental factors also affect the progress of the reading skills of students.Â Environmental factorsÂ includeÂ the background andÂ experience ofÂ children at home, as wellÂ asÂ familyÂ socioeconomicÂ kid,Â (4).Psychological factorsÂ that includeÂ motivation,Â interest, as well as social, emotional maturity and adaptablity.
Conclusions andÂ Suggestions
The conclusionÂ that can beÂ addressedÂ duringÂ the ongoingÂ research activitiesÂ isÂ ofÂ 25 studentsÂ inÂ AÂ group,Â only 2Â students wereÂ able to read.Â Read theÂ questionÂ isÂ to know theÂ letters andÂ the meaning ofÂ those letters.Â In addition,Â the results of the initial observation and pretestÂ had done then reading skills beginning in Kindergaten has not reachedÂ the expected results.Â There is a tendencyÂ that theÂ reading skillsÂ are shownÂ only asÂ studentsÂ memorizeÂ the letters, butÂ without knowingÂ the meaning ofÂ the letter when it was incorporatedÂ intoÂ a Word.Â In addition,Â the resultsÂ of theÂ observationsÂ doneÂ by mobilisingÂ the tendencyÂ ofÂ teachersÂ who teach with classical and more using the student worksheet.Â Therefore,Â researchersÂ are usingÂ the existingÂ learningÂ to improveÂ reading skillsÂ inÂ groupÂ a.Â beginningÂ ofÂ posttestÂ has done, then itÂ can be seen thatÂ there isÂ an increaseÂ in the abilityÂ to readÂ the beginning.Â Of theÂ 25 students, theyÂ experiencedÂ an increaseÂ in the abilityÂ to read it.
FromÂ ongoing research, soÂ the researchersÂ suggest:
- Control theÂ other variablesÂ whichÂ can be annoyingÂ ifÂ the implementation ofÂ theÂ research thatÂ will be done.
- students are expectedÂ ToÂ followÂ the learningÂ activitiesÂ thatÂ can achieveÂ optimal results.
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