Implementation of PAKEM to Improving the Ability Beginning of Reading in the Kindergaten Group A

ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya
29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3
Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya

Penulis  : Isabella Hasiana



Education is the business consciously and planned to bring about an atmosphere of learning and the learning process fun. Reading skills are the basis for various fields of study. If school-age child in the beginning did not immediately have the ability to read, then it will experience a lot of difficulties in learning a variety of majors in the next classes. Therefore, children should be expected to learn to read so he can read to learn. At the early childhood level course learning process in reading the beginning of Elementary School level are not the same.

The learning process being used are active and fun so that children don’t feel burdened. In addition, with this method can increase the motivation of students to continue to learn. The purpose of this research is to know the implementation of PAKEM in improving reading skills beginning at kindergaten Group A. The research approach used is a research experiment with pre-experimental design. Subjects in this research is  group A of kindergaten students as many as 25 students. The data collected was analyzed using T-test of the observations the overall indicator is used, the change occurred beginning reading skills before and after using the PAKEM. So it can be inferred that occurred beginning reading skills development of children after implementing PAKEM.

Keywords : Beginning of Reading, PAKEM,  Early Childhood



My name is Isabella Hasiana. I am a female. I am born was 1980, 16 October in Surabaya. I am work as a lecturer in Early Childhood Education, the Faculty of Education of  PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya University



Education is a planned and conscious effort to bring about an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for her to have a religious, spiritual power of self-control, personality, intelligence, morals, as well as the necessary skills themselves and society. Education in Indonesia is composed of formal education which was held in schools. The line it had a secondary education, starting from elementary education, secondary education, to higher education. While the formal education such as various courses, music courses, among others, tutoring etc. (

According to the statutes of the national education system the number 20 in 2003 ( are described further in chapter three on the principle of conducting education on article four five-paragraph mention that education organized by developing a culture of reading, writing, and numeracy for all citizens.

Reading skills are the basic for many fields of study can master. If school-age child in the beginning did not immediately have the ability to read, then he will likely experience a lot of difficulties in learning a variety of majors in the next classes. Therefore, children should be learning to read so he can read to learn (Lerner, 1989:349). Read the beginning stages generally starting since children enter grade one SD (elementary school), which at the time was about seven years old. The main goal of reading the beginning is so that the child can recognize writing as a symbol or symbol languages so that children can voice those writings (Wardani, 1995:56).

The results of the study are expected in learning reading beginning in grade level early childhood education, among others, to be able to read aloud the syllable with the proper pronunciation, read aloud a simple sentence with proper intonation and pronunciation, read smoothly a few simple sentences consisting of 3-5 words with the right intonation, as well as reading the poetry of children consisting of 2-4 lines with the right intonation and pronunciation (Depdiknas : 2007).

Based on the above description of some authors conclude that the ability to read is not an absolute requirement that must be mastered if students want to enter primary school, but it would be nice if early students had already provided the ability to recognize letters starting from kindergarten. This is due to start from first grade  elementary school students already taught some of the subjects that require reading skills.  Students who have the ability from the beginning of the basic education level, then it will be better equipped to follow the lessons in the next level of education.

Knowledge about reading the beginning is crucial to give the children  because by reading the beginning of them can communicate with friends or people around them.The ability to read is one of the skills that need to be developed in kindergarten, in addition to the aspect of the ability of speaking, listening and writing. The courage to speak up, ask questions and express the idea strongly support in the learning process. Need to develop the ability to read the beginning of the early (

Homes, schools and the environment is a source of learning for children to grow and develop. Therefore the time of child development to get the optimal learning course must be accompanied by a fun way and in accordance with the characteristics of early childhood.

Early observations conducted by the author in one of the kindergartens where students  are encouraged to read the beginning of the still with the conventional way. In this learning, teacher centered to students are indeed able to read but not understand about the writings or the meaning of the word. It is apparent from the 25 students, only 3 students were able to read and understand the meaning of those words and 22 students can read.

To solve the problem above, then needed an interesting learning, which can make it easier for children to develop the ability to read the beginning of the course in accordance with the principle of learning in kindergarten is a  learning with playing and playing with learning. In other words, teacher  holds a fairly important and strategic in improving the reading skills of students.

Then learning for beginning reading skills is done withe the PAKEM approach wihich is a learning approach that focuses on active learning, effective, crative and fun.  Learning is fun for students can improve motivation to continue learning during his life (Barkley, 2010:9).  Brophy (2004:4) explains that motivated the students in a class can improve enthusiasm, attention, student involvement and effort students to learn. Through the efforts of the kindergarten students are expected to have a fun learning experience, motivated to learn and continue to cause problems in the stages of learning to read next.

This is because reading is a very basic ability to learn a lot of knowledge about the world outside. In addition, the ability to read basic aspects to also become a developing other abilities (in Mulyati, 2013:1). On kindergarten reading skills, focusd on reading the beginning. According to Tampubolon (in Mulyati, 2013:1) “reading earlyalready need to be given as part of the effort to grow interest and habit of reading in children, and at the same time prepare it entering primary education”. Tampubolon further (in Mulyati, 2013:2) also explains that what is meant by reading early is reading taught in hard-wired (formally) to the children of pre school. The child is taught to read early generally more advanced in school than children who had never obtained read early. ”


Research Methods

The research approach used is the type of research experiments with using design pre-experimental one group pretests-posttest design. In this research, there was a pre test given before treatment so that the results of the treatment can be more accurate.

Experimental research can be said a research method used to locate a particular treatment influence against the other in conditions completely (Sugiyono, 2012:72).

The use of this research approach is used in order to achieve the research objectives, namely to know the influence of the PAKEM approach in improving reading skills a beginning. This research is applied to  group A of KINDERGARTEN  as many as 25 students. Method of collecting data in this study, namelyyang done using observation of participation (participant observasion) is a method of data collection used to gather research data through observation and sensing where the observer or researcher is really involved in the everyday life of the respondents. The second method is by using the test. The first thing that is done in the execution of experiments using single-subject design is done by doing a preliminary observation to the students to see how many students who are not yet able to read. After the test was given to a subject that has not been given the treatment (pretest) to see the ability to read the beginning of the data obtained After students who have problems in reading skills beginning, then given treatment that is teaching reading beginning which is based on the EXISTING approach. After a treatment to students who have problems in reading at the beginning, then provide test again to find out beginning reading skills of students. In the posttest will be obtained as a result of the experiments in which the ability to read the beginning of students increases or no change at all. Then compare the O1 and O2 to determine how big the differences that arise if there as a result of the variable for which experimentation. After the comparison, then the data were analyzed using t-test (Sugiono, 2012:166)


Research Results

From the results of the initial observation that has been made to 25 students, only 2students were able to read the beginning. Based on the results of observation, then the corresponding pretest reading skills a beginning. From the results of pre test has been done, then only 3 children who can read, so it needs to be given preferential treatment in the form of learning to read the beginning of using the EXISTING methods.


Tabel 5.5

Analysis Research with Uji T

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences T df Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Pair 1 pretest – posttest -5.84000 2.28546 .45709 -6.78339 -4.89661 -12.776 24 .000

From the results of the above calculation, then obtained sig (0.000) < 0.05 so Ha then accepted. And the hypothesis  “application of the PAKEM can improve reading skills beginning on group A” received.

From the results of the analysis that has been done, then it can be seen that the ability to read the beginning of the student can be done through models of learning that is fun. Students do not feel burdened by a monotonous nor of classical learning,but it can be done by playing while learning and learning while playing. This is due to the child’s play is an activity which is attached directly on the nature and needs ofchild development. The play is also defined as an activity that’s fun, spontaneous, focused on the process, the rewards are member of active, fun, and flexible. The more an activity has the characteristics, means of activity that increasingly is playing (Solehuddin, 1996 in UR



Reading skills are the basic for various fields of study. If school-age child in the beginning did not immediately have the ability to read, then it will experience a lot of difficulties in learning a variety of majors in the next classes. Therefore, children should be learning to read so he can read to learn (Lerner, 1989:349). The ability to read not only allows one to improve skills and mastery of a wide range of academics, but also allows participating in socio-cultural life, politics, and fulfill emotional needs (Mercer, 1979:197). Reading is also beneficial for recreation or to gain pleasure. Given the multitude of benefits of reading skills, then the child must learn to read and difficulties learning to read if can need to be addressed as soon as possible. Reading is in fact a form of communication.  Soedarso (1983)  suggests that reading is a complex activity that requires a large number of separate actions, including the use of notions, fantasies, observations, and memory.

PAKEM approach applied in improving reading skills this is the beginning of manifestation of active learning (active learning). Therefore, the teacher was supposed to implement active learning as a foundation early in the performance of the PAKEM.  Do not let the conventional learning methods are maintained, regardless of the development potential of the students as the provision in the face of time future. PAKEM is able to give attention to this aspect of the prsentation of learning.The presentation in this learning process can be done with the troubleshooting, curat opinions, learn by doing (learning by doing), using many methods are adapted to the context, or group work.

Many factors affect the ability to read, either read the beginning as well as advanced reading (comprehension). Factors that affect reading beginning according to Lamb and Arnold, 1976 (in Rahim,2006:16-29) are: (1). physiological factors that include physical health, neurogical, and consideration of gender. Fatigue is also an unfavorable condition for chlidren to learn, especially reading. Some experts suggested that the neurological limitations (ex. Various defects of the brain) and  the lack of physically is one of the factors that can cause a child to fail in improving reading skills and their understanding. Disorders of the tool talk, hearing, and vision can slow the progress of the study. Although it has no interference on vision, several children experience difficulty learning to read. It can happen because children experience difficulty learning to read. It can happen because the children experience difficult to learning is not develop. Example, their ability in distinguishing symbols of molds, such as letters, numbers, and words. For example  the student can not distinguish b, p and d. Differences of hearing (auditory discrimination) is the ability to listen to the similarities and differences of the sound of the languange as an important factor in determining a chlids reading readiness (Lamb and Arnold, 1976); (2) the intellectual factors, defined by Heinz thinking as an activity that comprises the essential understanding of the given situation and responded appropriately (Page et al, 1980). Associated with the explanation above, Heinz Wechster (in Harris and Sipay, 1980) argued that intelligence is the ability of the individual to act globally in accordance with the objective, rational thinking, and doing it effectively to the environment. In General, the intelligence of the child are not fully influenced the successful or whether children in reading the beginning. Teaching method of teacher factors, procedures, and capabilities of teachers also affects the ability to read the beginning of the child; (3) environmental factors also affect the progress of the reading skills of students. Environmental factors include the background and experience of children at home, as well as family socioeconomic kid, (4).Psychological factors that include motivation, interest, as well as social, emotional maturity and adaptablity.


Conclusions and Suggestions


The conclusion that can be addressed during the ongoing research activities is of 25 students in A group, only 2 students were able to read. Read the question is to know the letters and the meaning of those letters. In addition, the results of the initial observation and pretest  had done then reading skills beginning in Kindergaten has not reached the expected results. There is a tendency that the reading skills are shown only as students memorize the letters, but without knowing the meaning of the letter when it was incorporated into a Word.  In addition, the results of the observations done by mobilising the tendency of teachers who teach with classical and more using the student worksheet.  Therefore, researchers are using the existing learning to improve reading skills in group a. beginning of posttest has done, then it can be seen that there is an increase in the ability to read the beginning. Of the 25 students, they experienced an increase in the ability to read it.



From ongoing research, so the researchers suggest:

  1. Control the other variables which can be annoying if the implementation of the research that will be done.
  2. students are expected To follow the learning activities that can achieve optimal results.




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