EVALUATION ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN SDN KETINTANG II SURABAYA
ICETA 7 || 7th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Conference Proceedings || 13 Maret 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-3870-50-2 Penerbit : Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis : Ana Rafikayati
Today, many schools declared as an inclusive school. In the implementation, many things must be fulfilled in order to serve them optimally in accordance with National Education Regulation No.70 of 2009. In East Java, especially Surabaya City, has been 5 years of being an inclusive school, it has never been evaluated on the implementation of inclusive education. Based on those reasons, this study aimed to evaluate the implementation of inclusive education in SDN Ketintang II Surabaya.
This research used descriptive evaluative research where the researcher intends to collect data, and describe the policy implementation. Sources of data in this study were learners with special needs, regular learners, principals, classroom teachers, subject teachers, special education teacher, parents of regular learners and special needs learners and local residents. The technique of collecting data used interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis techniques used flow analysis techniques of Miles Huberman which the steps are data reduction, data display and verification. The results of this study indicate that from the aspects of learners, curriculum, learning process, educators and education personnel, learning tools, relation between school and society, SDN Ketintang II Surabaya mostly has been implemented the inclusive education in accordance with the policy. Even though for facilities and infrastructure and learning tool, SDN Ketintang II has not been implemented it properly. For facilities and infrastructure’s aspect, the building, wall and the road is still not accessible for learners with special needs, especially for learners with physically impairment and visually impairment. For learning tool’s aspect, the school just have learning tools for certain types of disability.
Keywords: The Implementation of Inclusive Education, Policy, Inclusive School
The issue of discrimination in education for learner with special needs has been rolling in Indonesia for long time. Before, education that are available for them are limited in segregation educational setting (exclusive). There are 3 service segregation educational settings, which are, (1) special schools that only serve learners with the same type of disabilities, (such as: SLB / A, SLB / B, SLB / C etc.), (2) special schools accommodate different types of disabilities, (such as: SDLB, SMPLB and SMALB), and (3) regular schools that accept learners with special needs or commonly called as an integrated school.
From those 3 of education services, segregated education services is more inclusive than others. Because another education services do not give chance for learner with special needs to go school in regular school. However, in an integrated school learner with special needs must adapt to the school curriculum, teachers, learning infrastructure, and learning activities. So the one who must adapt the system is the learner with special needs not the school.
Based on world issues on education for all, then Indonesia began to be introduced to inclusive education, education system which more friendly and do not discriminate against learner with special needs. Inclusive education is an education system that provides opportunities for all learners including learners with disabilities and learners who have intelligence potential and / or special talents to participate in education together with general learners (Kemendikbud, 2011: 1). The concept of inclusive education appears intended to provide solutions to their discriminatory treatment in educational services, especially for learner with special needs. Inclusive education has a basic principle that as long as possible, all learner have a right to learn.
Based on the mandate of the world and national on inclusive education, especially Permendiknas No. 70 of 2009 that specifically regulates about inclusive education, today many regular schools declared into an inclusive school. In the implementation, inclusive education is not completed when the regular school accepts learner with special needs to learn together with regular kids. Many things must be fulfilled in order to serve them optimally in accordance with National Education Regulation No.70 of 2009.
There are aspects that must be consider in organizing inclusive schools, which are: (1) learners, (2) curriculum, (3) the learning process, (4) educators and education personnel, (5) facilities and infrastructure, (6) learning tools, and (7) relation between school and society. So, when the school has declared as an inclusive school, it needs to be evaluated whether the implementation is accordance with the guidelines on Organizing inclusive education Permendiknas 70 of 2009 or not.
In East Java, especially Surabaya City, SDN Ketintang II Surabaya is one of the schools selected by the Education Department of Surabaya as one of inclusive school in Surabaya since 2009. Although SDN Ketintang II Surabaya has been 5 years of being an inclusive school, it has never been evaluated on the implementation of inclusive education. Based on those reasons, this study aimed to evaluate the implementation of inclusive education in SDN Ketintang II Surabaya.
This research used descriptive evaluative study which the researcher intends to collect data, and describe the policy implementation. Sources of data in this study were learners with special needs, regular learners, principal, classroom teachers, subject teachers, special education teacher, Parents (Regular and special needs learner) and local residents. All of those are persons who know well about the implementation of inclusive education in SDN Ketintang II Surabaya.
Data collection techniques used interview, observation and documentation. Observation technique is mostly used to obtain the information about the learning process, facilities and infrastructure. Interview technique is used to obtain data in all aspects and it mostly used to obtain data about curriculum and relation between school and society. Documentation technique is used to obtain data about learners, curriculum, educator and education personnel, learning tools and relation between school and society.
Data analysis techniques used flow analysis techniques Miles Huberman which covers the data reduction, data display and verification. At data reduction stage, data that has been obtained then reduced, and sorted, summarized and coded. Coding aim to facilitate discussion. In this study the data selected and categorized into (1) learners, (2) curriculum, (3) the learning process, (4) educators and education personnel, (5) facilities and infrastructure, (6) learning tools, and (7) relation between school and society.
After reduced, the data are presented (display) in order to make it easier in understanding the process and then do further analysis. The data presented in the form of narrative text. After data was displayed, then the next stage was verification. After data presented, then conducted data triangulation. After the completion of triangulation, the deduction (verification) can be done descriptively appropriate with the research focus. In this study the focus is the aspects of inclusive education implementation which are (1) learners, (2) curriculum, (3) the learning process, (4) educators and education personnel, (5) facilities and infrastructure, (6) learning tools, and (7) relation between school and society. Then final stage is comparing between the data and the guidelines of inclusive education implementation. Then it will conclude whether the school does implement it based on the guidelines or not based on 7 aspects.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The components that must be considered in the implementation of inclusive education are (1) learners, (2) curriculum, (3) the learning process, (4) educators and education personnel, (5) facilities and infrastructure, (6) learning tools, and (7) relation between school and society.
Learners at SDN Ketintang II Surabaya consisted of regular learners and learners with special needs. At school there are many kinds of learner with special needs, such as: slow learner learner, learner with hearing impairment, learner with visual impairment (low vision), learner with mentally disabled (mild and medium), learner with cerebral palsy, learner with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), learner with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder ADHD and learner with autistic spectrum.
In terms of identification, usually learners with special needs who enroll bring data about the child include: the results of an IQ test, psychological test results from the psychologist and the results of the identification of the physician. Additionally, SDN Ketintang II has a partnership with the Education Department of Surabaya city and psychologists so that an IQ test and psychological test can be implemented in schools. This activity is conducted on an ongoing basis. So that the test was done not only to see the child’s ability, but also to track and monitor the learner development regularly. The assessment is done by special education teachers. It is done to see the child’s ability in various aspects (cognitive, language, motor and socio-emotional). In conducting this assessment, a technique that is used is in-depth observation to see the potential and needs of learner. In addition, informal tests also given to see the cognitive aspects of the child.
In terms of class management, one class is managed by one classroom teacher and one special education teacher. The total number of learners per class on average is 25-35 learners. While the number of special education learners in each class vary between 6-10 learner. The placement of learners with special needs in SDN Ketintang II is full in regular classes which are based on child’s chronological age. Besides that, there is a pull-out system. So learner with special needs learn together with regular child in full, but if it is necessary, for example learner having difficulties in regular class, they will move to resources room which is separated from regular school.
Beside to provide learning for learners with special needs while pull-out system is using, resources room is also provided to give extra lessons after school for them. The learning activities provided include: repetition of material in class (remedial) and therapy. The therapy that is held at SDN Ketintang II include: speech therapy, behavioral therapy and occupational therapy.
Beside the services that are academically, learners with special needs also given guidance and counseling services. With the guidance and counseling services, ABK can be served optimally both in terms of academic and socio-emotional. To support these activities, teachers always worked closely with parents to harmonize programs provided to learner in order to also be applied at home.
Program development for learners is also very calculated in SDN Ketintang II Surabaya. The school also gave vocational and extracurricular program. Learners with special needs are given exercises in art and craft such as skills at making wicker, goods of flannel, and etc. accessories from recycled materials. There are also extracurricular activities such as dance to train the child’s sense of art and scouts to develop a child’s socialization and leadership skills.
In terms of learning in the classroom, to make learners with special needs can socialize with regular learners, teaching and learning activities are usually carried out in groups. Besides that, teachers also asked the regular learner to assistance learners with special needs (peer tutoring). Based on observations, learners with special needs can socialize well with regular learners and regular learners also receive learners with special needs well.
In terms of managing the admission and placement of learners with special needs, SDN Ketintang II also thinking about mutations and graduation of learners. SDN Ketintang II has cooperated with some inclusive schools in Surabaya so that if there are learners who want to move, the school will provide references and recommendations of schools that can be addressed. SDN Ketintang II also has coordination with secondary inclusive schools.
Based on the guidance of inclusive education, the inclusive school must consist of regular learner and learner with special needs. Based on that, it can be concluded that for learner’s aspect, SDN Ketintang II have been implement inclusive education properly. In SDN Ketintang II, there are regular learner and many kinds of learner with special needs, such as: slow learner learner, learner with hearing impairment, learner with visual impairment (low vision), learner with mentally disabled (mild and medium), learner with cerebral palsy, learner with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), learner with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder ADHD and learner with autistic spectrum.
The curriculum that is used in SDN Ketintang II is 2013 curriculum for grade I and IV and KTSP curriculum for grade II, III, V and VI. Meanwhile, in order to serve learners with special needs, SDN Ketintang II used adaptation curriculum based on the needs of each child. The adaptation method used escalation, duplication, modification, substitution and omission. The adaptation can be applied to aspects of learning objective, material, process and evaluation. Those adaptations can be seen at figure 1 as follows:
Information:Figure I: Methods in Adapting Curriculum
Escalation: incensement, duplication: imitation, modification: alteration, substitution: replacement, and omission: removal.
In determining the education timetable and length of education for learners with special needs, SDN Ketintang II determines it just like regular learners. The learning process starts at 07 AM to 11AM for grade I-III and 07 AM to 12:30 AM for grade IV-VI. But for learners with special needs there is additional time for learners who needs remedial learning and therapy special needs learner and it is done after school hours. The duration is one hours and sometimes one hour and thirty minutes.
Based on the guidance of inclusive education, teacher must use the curriculum based on the child ability. Therefore learner can use regular curriculum or modification curriculum. Based on that, it can be concluded that for curriculum’s aspect, SDN Ketintang II have been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II use regular curriculum for the one can follow that curriculum. And the one who cannot, the use modification curriculum with escalation, duplication, modification, substitution and omission method. There is also therapy as special curriculum for learner with special needs such as mobility orientation, speech therapy, remedial teaching, behavior therapy, etc.
- Learning process
The learning activities in SDN Ketintang consider the needs of each child as an individual. In accordance with the 2013 curriculum, learning toward to build character of the learners. In connection with that, there is agenda scheduled to pray together for grade IV-VI in the afternoon (Dhuhur praying). They pray together in mosque which is place in the school.
In its implementation, learning in the regular classroom done by classroom teacher that is accompanied by one special education teacher in each class. The role of the classroom teacher and special education teacher is balanced and mutually support each other. Special education teacher also contribute in the general classroom management and classroom teachers also deal with learners with special needs so that the teachers can understand the needs of each child. So it there is difficulties from learners with special needs, not only special education teacher who take care of it. Classroom teacher also cooperate share the responsibility.
The socialization between learners with special needs and the regular learners at SDN Ketintang II is very good so that teachers often divide the class into groups and play the game so learners with special needs became part of the team. This makes learning much more lively and the socialization among learners is growing well. Besides that, regular learners also acts as a tutor for the learners with special needs who need help. Before accepting learners with special needs, school has socialized to regular learners that there will be learners with special needs who will join to the class crews so regular learners are able to accept their joining well and trying to help them who need assistance.
The things that need to be considered in designing learning activities are as follows:
- Develop the lesson plan
- Deciding the setting goals
- Planning the classroom management
- Planning the materials
- Planning the learning activities
- Planning the learning resources
- Planning the ratings
- Learning activities
- Extend the learning time.
- Sometimes the learning can be done at resource room.
- The use of special learning tools for learners with special needs.
- The placement of the seat at a particular location (close to the teacher).
- Regular learners can be a tutor of learners with special needs.
- The task sometimes different from other learners.
- Additional explanations / specific learning outside school hours.
In managing the learning process in an inclusive education, its scope is as follows:
- Individual Education Program (IEP)
This program is the learners’ individual learning program which is based on the ability, means, and its own pace. With IEP, learner can gradually increase their learning ability through approach, attention, way, and specific actions. Preparation, implementation, and evaluation of IEP in SDN Ketintang II Surabaya apply the cooperation principle, involving: teacher, learner peer tutor, parents, and special education teacher. Preparation of the IEP considering: learning objectives, teaching and learning activities (materials, methods, media, and evaluation), and support services.
Stages of IEP in SDN Ketintang II are as follows:
- To study the profile of learners is based on the identification and assessment as information to give an appropriate service for learners with special needs.
- Determine the entry level of the learners ability so know which aspect needs to be improved
- Determine strengths and weaknesses of learners to specific subjects
- Determine basic competencies
- Determine indicators
- Develop the learning process (materials, media, methods, evaluation)
- Determine the allocation of time, place, and the parties involved.
The management of learning load for learners with special needs in SDN Ketintang II Surabaya is same as regular learner that is adapted based on the ability of learners. For learners with special needs minimum standard competency adjusted to the potential of each child. Assessment of learning outcomes in SDN Ketintang II Surabaya should describe the achievement of learners, competency skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are appropriate to the abilities and needs based curriculum adaption.
The Assessment in inclusive education should be flexible. It can use different types of tests method (oral, written, action) and can use any type of non-test method (observation, interviews, attitude scales). The timing of the assessment of learners with special needs should be programmed in the calendar of education in the form of the following activities:
- Daily examination
- Midterm examination
- Final examination
- National examination /school examination
Procedures/method for the implementation of the assessment may be flexibly based on the needs, capabilities and conditions of learners with special needs. For report cards, learners with special needs have 2 report cards. The first is the same repord card like others and the other one is the development report cards. The development report written in descriptive sentences not number. For national examination, SDN Ketintang II adapts to each child’s ability. For learner who is able to follow the National Examination, they do that examination. And for learners with special needs who cannot follow the National Examination will do School Examination that is designed by inclusive schools teacher association of department education of Surabaya.
Based on the guidance of inclusive education, there are 3 management classes. First is fully regular without special education teacher. Second is learner at regular class with special education teacher help. Third, learner and special education teacher learn at resource room. Based on that, it can be concluded that for learning process’s aspect, SDN Ketintang II have been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II used those 3 management class based on the needs of learner. Teachers also make IEP and the evaluation also accordance with the planning.
- Teachers and Education Personnel
The management of educators and education personnel in SDN Ketintang covers include:
- Employee inventory
In SDN Ketintang Surabaya the employee inventory performed once a year. School renews the data about the number of active teachers, also teachers who move in or out. It is done not only for civil servant teachers, but also for temporary teachers.
- Teacher and education personnel recruitment
Proposal waiting for vacancy from education department of Surabaya, then the principal will decide who was worthy being proposed as a permanent employee. It is done every year because of the opportunities from education department only once a year.
Prior to the credit number of professorship the promotion automatically decided by education department once for 4 years. After getting the credit number of professorship, everything is depending on the achievement of teacher. Generally teacher gets promotion after 2 to 3 years. After the credit number of professorship exists, teacher evaluation is done every 4 years. There are 2 teachers have been proposed.
- Salary of temporary teacher
The salary for civil servant teacher has been decided by the central government. For temporary teacher gets from local government. The amount is as much as the standard minimum salary in Surabaya city. SDN Ketintang II teachers and 100% of them have got that.
Based on the guidance of inclusive education, there are 3 kinds of teacher at inclusive school, there are classroom teacher, subject teacher and special education teacher. Special education must have graduated from bachelor of special education or teacher who has competency to handle student with special needs through training. School at least has 1 special education teacher at their school. Based on that, it can be concluded that for teacher and education personnel’s aspect, SDN Ketintang II have been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II has 6 special education teacher for each class and all of them are graduated from bachelor of special education.
- Facilities and Infrastructure
Learners with special needs require special infrastructure in terms of accessibility of learner in the school environment. Building, buildings and roads should be designed to facilitate access to the crew in moving or looking for information in the school environment. As examples of ABK-friendly infrastructure in question, for example:
- Building no sharp-edged and floor mats signpost for blind learner
- The grip on the classroom walls and floors are sloping (no staircase) for a wheelchair user to learner with physical disabilities
- Class sizes are adequate for regular learners and crew comfort in general
Based on the guidance of inclusive education, there the building must be accessible or learner with special needs. Based on that, it can be concluded that for facilities and inftrastructure’s aspect, SDN Ketintang II do not implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II building, the building and the road is still the same as school buildings in general. Therefore, it is difficulty for learner with special needs especially learner with visually impairment and psychically disabled to mobile at school.
- Learning tools for learner with special needs
Learner with special needs require infrastructure and facilities in the learning process at school. It is facilitate them to get access of information because of their needs sometimes they cannot get the information like others. The media that is needed for them is as follows:
- Learners with visual impairment / Low vision; glasses, telescopes, writing Braille tools, Braille typewriters, etc.
- Learners with hearing impairment hearing aids, audiometer, speech trainer, loop systems, audio-visual media and sign language dictionary, etc.
- Learners with mentally disabled and learning disabilities; Tactile Pooth, Foot and Hand, Balance Labyrinth Spiral, Aroma Bottle, and props, as well as audio-visual media, etc.
- Learners with physically disabled, such as: ramp (floor ramps instead of stairs), wheelchairs, props, and audio-visual media, books, etc.
- Gifted (gifted and talented) such as: reference books, practical tools, laboratories, art tools and sports and IT facilities, to satisfy the curiosity and interest of gifted learner.
Based on the guidance of inclusive education, learner with special needs need special learning tools that will help them in getting information at school during learning. Based on that, it can be concluded that for learning tool’s aspect, SDN Ketintang II do not implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II has have most of the learning tools that is needed for learner with special needs. But for now school only have the learning tools for certain kinds of disability only.
- Relations between school and society
Society should always be involved in the development of education in order to grow a “sense of ownership” of the existence of educational institutions around. The quality of a school in the neighborhood is also a joint responsibility of the local community so that not only the principal and the teachers who think of this but also local community involved thinking together.
To attract public sympathy to be willing to participate to promote the school, it needs to do a variety of things, such as by giving them information regarding school programs. Programs that have been implemented, ongoing programs and future program so that people get a clear picture of the school.
The involvement of the community is needed, especially in socialization about school to others. The Understanding and caring of society for learner with special needs will be very big influence on efforts to fulfill the right to education for them. This understanding will impact positively on the attitudes of other learners who are studying together with learner with special needs. Thus it will create more conducive learning environment for learner with special needs and regular learners at school.
Based on the guidance of inclusive education, school must coordinate with society to support the implementation of education for all. Based on that, it can be concluded that for relation between school and society’s aspect, SDN Ketintang II has good relation with society well. To achieve that, the school often does socialization and done some activities outside of school such as outing class or during national celebration day like celebration of Kartini’s day, Independence’s day, hero’s day, etc.
The research showed the following matters:
- From the aspect of learners, in SDN Ketintang II has been implement inclusive education properly. In SDN Ketintang II there are regular students and many kinds of learner with special needs.
- From the aspect of curriculum, SDN Ketintang II has been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II use modification curriculum for children with special needs whose skill under the regular curriculum.
- From the aspect of learning process, SDN Ketintang II has been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II used 3 management class of inclusive education based on the needs of learner.
- From the aspect of teacher and education personnel, SDN Ketintang II has been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II has 1 special education teacher for each class and they all graduated from bachelor of special education.
- From the aspect of infrastructure, SDN Ketintang II has not been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II still does not accessible for learners with special needs. The building, wall and the road is still the same as school buildings in general.
- From the aspect of learning tools, SDN Ketintang II has not been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II only has learning tools for certain types of disability not all of types.
- From the aspect of relations with the society, SDN Ketintang II has been implement inclusive education properly. SDN Ketintang II often does socialization and done some activities outside to socialize inclusive education to society.
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|Ana Rafikayati is a lecturer of University PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya. She got her master degree at State University of Surabaya. She has range of experiences as a teacher and consultant of learner with special needs since 2011. She joined range of project about special education, such as: the development of recorded book and orientation mobile skill of learner with visual impairment in 2010, the development of communication method for learner with special needs in 2012 and 2013 and the development of post school transition for learner with special needs 1n 2014 and 2015.|