Impelementation of Integrated Writing Technique to Teach Writing
NCOLLT 2014 || 1st National Conference on Language and Language Teaching 23rd August 2014 || ISBN: 978-979-3870-59-5 Penyelenggara : Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis : Rikat Eka Prastyawan
Guru atau dosen perlu mencari cara yang berbeda bagi siswa untuk mendapatkan umpan balik pada tulisan mereka.
Menulis Terpadu adalah teknik pengajaran menulis yangmengintegrasikan beberapa keterampilan; mendengarkan, berbicara, membaca dan menulis. Kegiatan pembelajaran adalah menggabungkan kegiatan-kegiatan (mendengar, berbicara, membaca, dan menulis) dan di akhir kegiatan, akan ada produk siswa, yang merupakan komposisi menulis siswa. Berdasarkan latar belakang di atas, penelitian ini akan difokuskan pada bagaimana teknik penulisan terintegrasi diimplementasikan dalam proses mengajar dan belajar dan bagaimana tulisan siswa diajarkan dengan menggunakan teknik penulisan terintegrasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan deskriptif kualitatif sebagai desain penelitian. Untuk membantu peneliti dalam menganalisis komposisi siswa pada organisasi, konten, dan penggunaan bahasa, maka peneliti menerapkan keterampilan menulis terpadu yang terdiri dari “fase tugas” dan”fase interaktif” dan “fase menulis” yang dibimbing oleh guru atau dosen.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In learning process, there are some difficulties that are usually faced in writing class. It can be about motivation of the students to write and the difficulties of making a composition itself. Hadley (2000:283) also added that in almost all of the following activity, writing is not practiced in isolation: rather, skills are practiced in an interdependent fashion It is supported by this statement that the most common problem that confronts teachers of a writing class does not lie so much on what to ask students to write about. Students are often confused about what material to-write. It is also related to the motivation of the students in the class especially in writing class. Gebhard (1996:235) states that there are some problems of EFL/ESL teachers. Those problems might be included in the difficulties in writing class: first, The “teaching the less-proficient writer” problem. Some students use ineffective writing strategies, and the teacher is faced with showing these students how to write. Second is, “I can’t write English”. Some of students have negative attitudes about writing or lack of confidence in themselves as writer. The teacher is faced with changing their attitudes and building confidence. Third is “Teacher response”. Students do not always understand or pay attention to the content of the teacher’s response to their work. Teachers need to explore in different ways for students to get feedback on their writing.
Integrated writing is a technique of teaching writing that integrates some skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing. The teacher is combining those activities (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and in the end of the activity, there will be students’ product, which is a student writing composition. There are good psychological and practical reasons why writing should be fully integrated with listening, speaking, and reading in a foreign language course, and not treated in isolation or neglected (Abbot et.al 1981:143). Some of them are: (1) the skill of listening, speaking, reading, and writing are different, but there are many elements that are same. It is better to teach listening, speaking, reading, and writing in close association for economy in learning. (2) Receptive and productive skill is related each other. Listening, speaking, reading, and writing all contribute and mesh together in his activity, (3) in foreign language learning, some learners are more dependent than others on the visual and muscular memories associated with writing, thus it can be as the solver learning in the class with the problem of different way in learning. Integrating those four skills will help them in better learning
Based on the background above, this study is focused on how the integrated writing technique is implemented in the teaching and learning process and how students’ writing taught by using integrated writing technique is.
This study will be conducted to find out the implementation of integrated writing technique to teach writing. Based on the focus stated in the background of study above, it will be better to use a descriptive qualitative study. This design focuses on the implementation of integrated writing technique, and also the result of students writing by using that one. the researcher analyzes qualitatively to the teaching learning of writing by using integrated writing technique in the classroom. First, this study will attempt to describe the process of teaching writing by using Integrated writing technique. Next, the researcher tries to analyze the student’s activities toward the implementation of that technique by recording teaching and learning process in the classroom. The last, the researcher will analyze the students’ writing after the implementation of Integrated writing technique. The researcher will use an Analytic Scale for rating composition task (Brown & Bailey. 1984, pp 39-41) to help the researcher to analyze the students’ composition Profile to help the researcher to analyze the students’ composition based on organization, content, and language use. Therefore, the results of the research are in the forms of description and interpretation of some phenomena that existed during the research. Subject of the data in this research are the teachers or lecturers who use integrated writing technique to teach writing and students in University or Senior High School.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
It is important for teacher or lecturer to make various classroom activities. It is required the creativity of the teacher or lecturer to handle and conduct the class. It includes the implementation of integrated writing skill that is the realization of that. It is clear one of the things that supports the successful output of second language classroom is the integrating some skills in teaching learning activity. In this one, writing is integrated with other skills.
Implementation of Integrated Writing Technique in the classroom.
Integrated writing skill is a technique of teaching writing that integrating some skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing. In integrating writing lessons with reading, speaking and of course listening, students are able to produce dynamic writing output (http: //itslj.org/Techniques/Ikeguchi-IntegrWrite.html). Integrated writing skill is a technique that have implemented for students in Japan.
This technique is presented by Dr. Cecilia B-Ikeguchi from Tokyo Kasei Gakuin: Tsukuba Women’s University (Japan) in her paper which was published in the International Journal for Teachers of Writing Skills (January, 1997). With focus on writing skills, this paper reports on a successful and effective teaching and learning technique used with Japanese University students in the advance Writing Classes (http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Ikeguchi-IntergrWrite.html). It’s supported by Reid (1993:177):
“Although nothing is inherently wrong with spot drilling, grammar practice, comprehension question, and individual skills tasks, a successful second language classroom is usually based on (a) a rationally planned, sequenced series of lesson plans that (b) integrates man of the complex skills that are essential to language learning and (c) provides students with authentic learning experiences that are (d) related to their lives, their learning styles and strategies, and their learning objectives”
It is important for teacher to make various classroom activities. It is required the creativity of the teacher to handle and conduct the class. It includes the implementation of integrated writing skill that is the realization of that. It is clear that one of the things that supports the successful output of second language classroom is the integrating some skills in teaching learning activity.
In this technique, writing is integrated with other skills. Here are the procedures of integrated writing skills technique which was successfully implemented in Japan University student (http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Ikeguchi-IntegrWrite.html.)
The first phase of the lesson begins one week before with the giving of the assignment. Teacher reads (or on the board, or make copies of) a list of as many topics which he/she thinks to be of interest to the group. Teacher allows the students to choose any one topic that they are most interested in something that they would like to know more about. Then teacher tells them to look for a short (the shortest is one paragraph, the longest is one page) magazine or newspaper article, read thoroughly until they understood the content, and make a copy t bring to class. No writing is done yet; students are required only to completely comprehend the text they had chosen.
The second phase of the lesson is the “interactive phase” which begins on the day of the next class. Students who had chosen the same topic are called to sit together and form a group. They are then told to take turns in reading-or reporting-each of their articles to the group members, while everybody else listens and then asks questions to clarify points that are unclear, or make comments. Teacher allow as much time as the students are willing to talk, or half of the whole class time. At this point, teacher makes sure that students within the same group recognize common or diverse aspects relating to the same topic. For instance, on the topic on Environmental Problems, they would have chosen articles on: Deforestation, Garbage Problems, Noise Pollution, etc.
The third phase of the lesson is the “writing stage”. Teacher asks the students to get back to their seats and write about two things: (1) the topic they had chosen to read and bring to class, and (2) the other related aspects of the same topic that they found out from the group interaction.
As Harmer (2001:260) said that writing as a cooperative activity. He added that, in language classes teachers and students can take advantages of the presence of others to make writing a cooperative activity, with great benefit to all those involved. Writing can be done cooperatively. In this technique, students are working cooperatively but they compose their own writing individually.
In this research, argumentative composition is chosen for the implementation, because this composition is the appropriate one since this text has characteristics that belong to this technique. One of the argumentative characteristics is, the composition should contain of evidence to support the writer’s believe. It must be clear and logic. The implementation of integrated writing skill might help them to compose argumentative composition correctly because in “interactive phase”, students discuss together about their resource, clarifying, making comments, arguing, etc.
For a lesson on teaching skills on summarizing, teacher asks student to find 3-5 sentences indicating the main points in the article, and re-write these in their own 3-5 sentences.
At the same time an exercise on outlining, Teacher asks them to identify 2-3 main ideas in the article-or as many as they can find, re-write these main ideas in their own words. At the same time they are told to include a sentence supporting each of these main ideas.
For a lesson on expressing personal opinions/beliefs, students are told to identify, again, 2-3 main ideas (or as many as they think there are) and give their personal reaction to each of these ideas.
Those are steps of teaching writing by using integrated writing technique that was successfully implemented in Japan. Teacher was used to use this technique, and in the end of the lesson, the teacher asked students to write the main of resource, not the whole composition. Finally, in the end of study, teacher asked them to compose a complete essay. It was done successfully. On the other hand, in this research, students were taught by using integrated skill, which is focused on writing ability and in the end of lesson they are asked to compose the argumentative composition.
The students’ writing can be got through the following steps; The first meeting, the students will be given brain storming. They are asked to explore an argumentative composition with the theme “environment”. Still in the first meeting, after the assignment has been done, the researcher gives assignment to the students. This is called as the “assignment phase”. Firstly, the students are divided into some groups (it can be four or five groups and it depends on the quantity of the students). Each group has to choose the topics that the teacher has prepared. The topics are; (1) technology; (2) Health;(3) Sport; (4) Education: (5) entertainment; and (6) Industry.
The topics above are the current topics nowadays and they will be developed into argumentative composition on the next meeting. After each group gets their own topic, each member of the group has to find out the resources based on the theme that they have gotten. For the example, one group takes the theme of Environment. The students can choose articles on; Deforestation, Garbage Problems, Noise Pollution, etc. The resources will be the material for their argumentative composition for the next meeting.
Second Meeting. In the second meeting the students stay their group. This is called as the “interactive phase”. Firstly, the teacher or lecturer explains about argumentative composition. She explains what argumentative is, parts of argumentative and teacher or lecturer also gives the example of argumentative composition. After the explanation, students who have chosen the same topic are called to sit together and form a group. They are then told to take turns in reading-or reporting each of their articles to the group members, while everybody else listens and then asks questions to clarify points that are unclear, or make comments. At this point, the researcher makes sure that students within the same group recognize common or diverse aspects relating to the same topic. For instance, on the topic on Environmental Problem, they would have chosen articles on: Deforestation, Garbage Problems, Noise Pollution, etc.
The third phase of the lesson is the “writing stage”. The researcher asks the students to get back to their seats and write about two things: (1) the topic they had chosen to read and bring to class, and (2) argumentative composition based on the topic that they have chosen.
The main goal of the teaching in this research is that the students are able to write composition correctly. However, in previous study the goal of the teaching learning is that the students are able to write the main points of the text (resource). In this study, the researcher conducts the integrated writing skill that consists of “assignment phase”, “interactive phase” and “writing stage”. All of them are guided by the teacher or lecturer.
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