ASSESSMENT IN INTERCULTURAL LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LEARNING



ICETA 9 || International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana
26 Agustus 2017 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-97-6
Penerbit : Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya

Penulis  : Indayani

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to examine the assessments in intercultural language and literature learning. The multicultural education aims to train and build the character of learners to be able to be democratic, humanist, and pluralist. An assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to determine the extent to which learners have achieved learning objectives Language assessment refers to the achievement of learning goals to learners as a form of selfreliance through learning. The results of this assessment show that competence in intercultural language and literature learning includes knowledge, skills, attitudes, and cultural values. The knowledge intended is the transformation of knowledge or understanding of culture. The skills refer to the ability to interpret other cultures or communicate well. The attitude pointed is an open attitude by respecting the culture of others. Additionally, the value meant is the understanding and applying the cultural values learnt. The assessment of language learning and intercultural literature is authentic assessment. Authentic assessment not only measures one aspect but also some other aspects of the learners themselves such as the achievement, motivation, and attitude. Teachers must understand the learning process undertaken by learners so that teachers have readiness in the transformation of science, creating a learning environment that is right, and fun for learners.

 

Keywords: assessment, learning, intercultural

 

INTRODUCTION

Assessment is a process of describing learning outcomes that have been pursued after the learners through a series of learning process, which is determined using a particular method. Assessment in intercultural language and literature is an assessment that refers to intercultural-based language and literacy learning results, focusing on aspects of judgment in language and literature referring to intercultural systems. Through the assessment of intercultural language and literature can be known level of success of the learning process that has been taken in a certain time scale. Intercultural language and literature assessment aims to describe intercultural language and literature learning outcomes in accordance with the aspects learned and ultimately determined the level of success or change occurring therein (a change towards increasing understanding, attitudes, and character of learners). In the process of intercultural language and literature assessment it is not permissible to pass or exceed the assessment aspects of language and literature learning and must be linked with intercultural in order that the research undertaken produces an objective description of the intercultural language and literature learning process. Aspects of intercultural language and literature assessment will provide an assessment rule that directs the evaluator to objectively assess the intercultural language and literacy learning outcomes. According to Guba and Lincoln in Arifin (2009: 5) defines evaluation as a process of giving consideration in terms of value and meaning to what learners achieve. This means the value and meaning of the value is the purpose of the evaluation. Value related to such qualities is excellent,

good, bad, and not good. Very well and well means that learners at that level need not repeat because it has succeeded while the less good and bad indicate that the unsuccessful student needs to be guided. After seeing the results (value and meaning of value), the teacher should perform a thorough evaluation of the planning and processes that have been done. The evaluation is guided by the question: why there are learners who are still at a bad level, what causes, what to do, how to do it, and so on. Assessment is described by dividing it into several quality criteria that is very good, good, bad, bad, and not very good.

The assessment of intercultural language and literature learning is interesting to examine

because this assessment leads to the process of describing intercultural language and literacy learning results tailored to the criteria and assessment aspects. Assessment results can be described with several criteria and should lead to a learning process that has been undertaken that is transformed as a result of learning. The problem formulation in this assessment is how is the assessment in intercultural language and literature learning? The purpose of this assessment is to assess the assessment in intercultural language and literature learning.

THEORETICAL REVIEW

Assessment

Tyler in Arikunto (2006: 3) states that evaluation is a process of collecting data to determine the extent to which, in what way, and which parts of educational objectives have been achieved. This gives teachers the freedom to collect data about students to measure achievement of educational goals. Data collection is not through tests alone, but can be in other ways such as portfolio, group investigation, and others. To determine the achievement of educational goals, many ways are done for it. Evaluation can be said as the data collection process that shows the results of the learning process that has been undertaken. Iskandarwassid and Sunendar (2008: 179) define evaluation as an action or process of determining the value of learning outcomes in education. Evaluation leads to evaluation of learning outcomes after learning activities. Assessment can be said as the evaluation process is divided into several criteria, which is taken through the process of collecting data from the learning process that has been going on and then describe it, the assessment can be described as learning outcomes after the learning process was taken. Arifin (2009: 14) said that the evaluation is done with the aim to know the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning system, whether it concerns the purpose, materials, media, learning resources, environment, and assessment system. Meanwhile, Chittenden in Arifin (2009: 15) suggests that there are four evaluation objectives are: 1) Keeping Track, which collects data and

information within a certain time with various types and assessment techniques to get a picture of learning progress learners, 2) Checking- Up, that is to know the part that has been understood pebelajar and parts that have not been understood, 3) Finding Out, searching and finding shortcomings, errors, and weaknesses of learners then find a way out of things, and 4) Summing-up, Summing up the mastery of learners and making progress reports.

Byram, et al., (2002: 9) explains that the purpose of evaluation is to diagnose, to know the

mastery level of learners, and to measure learners’ achievement. The purpose of the diagnosis is to know the lack or weakness of the learners and what must be done to overcome them. The purpose of knowing the level of mastery of learners to find out how much mastery of the learners of the material taught, whether remedial or enrichment needs. The last is the goal of measuring achievement is to know the things that have been achieved or obtained by the learners within a certain time so that the learners can make progress graph of each learners. Assessment is the process of making decisions by using information obtained through measurements, either using tests or non-complaints (Ratumanan and Laurens, 2003: 4). Furthermore, Gronlund in Arifin (2009: 4) defines assessment as a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information or data to determine the extent to which learners have achieved the learning objectives. It can be argued that the purpose of assessment is a series of processes of collecting information, knowing the degree of achievement of the material, to identify the deficiencies that still exist in the learning process, and to determine or diagnose the level and mastery of the material by

the learners. Assessment can be interpreted as a series of both test and nontest processes to collect and analyze and interpret the results of the learning process systematically.

Assessment in Intercultural Language and Literature Learning

In the assessment of the language used an authentic assessment. Authentic assessment is an underlying assessment of aspects of the assessment of several aspects that occur during the learning process of learners. Mueller in Ismet and Hariyanto (2014: 168) defines authentic judgment as a form of judgment that requires learners to perform tasks that demonstrate their knowledge and skills. This opinion emphasizes the activities of learners and what has been possessed as a form of knowledge and skill transformation. Student activity is none other than to carry out the task given by the teacher while the knowledge and skills are what has been learned and owned. Stiggins in Ismet and Hariyanto (2014: 168) state that authentic authenticity is an assessment that requires learners to practice special skills and competencies. That is, learners must apply their abilities about certain material. If it is associated with the cognitive domain proposed by Bloom, then in this sense learners have reached the third level (application). In relation to intercultural language and literature learning, authentic assessment is directed at the ability to communicate and interact both in class and outside the classroom. Authentic assessment is a form of judgment that requires learners to perform tasks that are given to the teacher to show that the learners really understand and master what they have learned. This means that in the authentic assessment it is necessary to apply the material that has been taught. Memory and understanding are something that the learners should have. Assessment in an intercultural class is no longer about what it is, but how to apply something (Ismet and Hariyanto, 2014: 168). Authentic assessment not only measures one aspect, but some aspects of self- earners are achievement, motivation, and attitudes in students through the learning process.

Scarino (2010) says that intercultural-based learning assessments focused on intercultural

competencies also inform the type of assessment needed to record the learning process and its improvement. Scarino proposes an open-ended assessment process that allows learners and teachers to work together to improve learning. In addition, the assessment is also oriented to allow learners to interpret the values and meaning in maintaining their culture and language personally. The assessment of language and literature may refer to an open scoring system. Openness and honesty by teachers and learners can be measured from behavior in language classes; A learners prepare evaluation tools to measure indicators of learners’ honesty. To obtain these indicators, intercultural approaches can be pursued by preparing indicators of assessment, measuring, and assessing the aspects of honesty in language and literature learning in order to recognize the practices of values honesty in the language and literature classes. In terms of intercultural language and literature learning, Brown (2007: 234) offers eight criteria for guiding teachers before undertaking learning in intercultural classes, namely: 1) teachers must respect the customs of each learner, 2) the teacher should not undermine the habits of the learners’ culture, 3 ) The teacher should not undermine the learners ‘native language, 4) The teacher should give freedom to the learners participating in the class, 5) If the learners have to do something new, the teacher should ensure that it is done with pleasure, 6) The teacher should be sensitive to the learners’ Male and female, 7) The teacher should give the learners the opportunity to think and express their feelings in their own language, and 8) The teacher must give the learners the opportunity to show their own experience. Moeller and Nugent (2014: 3) say that intercultural competence includes 1) self-awareness and identity transformation, 2) learners as researchers, and 3) processes. Self-awareness and identity transformation refers to building a paradigm’s way of thinking or way of thinking about a particular culture (eg from avoiding cultural differences to finding cultural differences). Byram, et al., (2002:11) says that the components of intercultural competence include knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The knowledge in question is an understanding of the culture being studied. Learning a language can not be separated from learning how language is used daily, especially how language shapes the culture of its native speaker. Liddicoat, et al. In Riesky (2014: 6) says that the competencies to be achieved in learning culture include 1) active construction, 2) making connections, 3) social interaction, 4) reflection, and 5) responsibility. Active construction implies the need for learners to seek and build their own knowledge of the target culture so that they are able to describe, analyze, and compare their culture with the target culture. Making connections emphasizes the ability to connect and see intercultural linkages. Social interaction emphasizes the ability to discuss and interact among learners. Reflection is the ability to respond and reflect the culture learned. Responsibility refers to the ability to build

awareness of cultural differences and respect others and their culture.

Intercultural language and literature assessment is open and putting forward the process in

the assessment rather than the outcome of the process because intercultural is a unified diversity so that in assessing intercultural language and literature judged by the principle of openness. In the process of intercultural language and literature assessment, the role of learners is preferred, the teacher’s wisdom in looking at the diversity that each of the learners can not be uniformly assessed, but must be assessed objectively according to the diversity embedded in the learners. Assessment in an intercultural view is open and appreciates all learners in taking a role in the assessment process.

DISCUSSION

In the assessment of intercultural language and literature learning, teachers should integrate

linguistic aspects with intercultural aspects that underlie the understanding and application of

language and literature in every learning so that teachers can conduct objective assessment in learning. Assessment should be in accordance with the background of each learner in collaboration with aspects of language and literature assessment. Furthermore, the generalization of the results of the various assessments according to social circumstances of each learners into aspects of the assessment of language and literature. Furthermore, teachers can apply the learning result criteria system after conducting a series of objective assessment processes to all learners. In the assessment of the language applied an authentic assessment of the assessment on aspects of achievement, motivation, and attitudes in students through the learning process. Authentic authentication based on the assessment process is not limited to just the knowledge aspect, but also refers to aspects that become patterns of development in the learners themselves. Authentic assessment is more emphasis on the series of processes undertaken by students during the learning

process, through the changes that arise during the learning process is drawn a conclusion that became the reference of authentic assessment which includes, the development of achievement learners, motivation learners in receiving learning, and the attitude of learners in the positioning Self during the learning process.

In the intercultural assessment it is necessary to consider aspects of the assessment that

include knowledge, attitude skills and values. 1) knowledge, knowledge in question is the

transformation of knowledge or understanding of culture, 2) attitudes, attitudes are open attitude by respecting the culture of others, 3) skills, skills are the ability to interpret other cultures or communicate well. ) Value, the value in question is understanding and applying the learned cultural values. Multicultural education aims to train and build the character of learners to be able to be democratic, humanist, and pluralist. Assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to determine the extent to which learners have achieved learning objectives. Language assessment refers to the achievement of learning goals to learners as a form of self-reliance through learning.

Intercultural competence includes 1) self-awareness and identity transformation, 2) learners

as researchers, and 3) process. Self-awareness and identity transformation refers to building a paradigm’s mindset or way of thinking about a particular culture (eg from avoiding cultural

differences to finding cultural differences). Components of intercultural competence include

knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The knowledge in question is an understanding of the culture being studied. Learning a language can not be separated from learning how language is used daily, especially how language shapes the culture of its native speaker.

Competencies to be achieved in learning culture include 1) active construction, 2) making

connections, 3) social interaction, 4) reflection, and 5) responsibility. Active construction implies the need for learners to seek and build their own knowledge of the target culture so that they are able to describe, analyze, and compare their culture with the target culture. Making connections emphasizes the ability to connect and see intercultural linkages. Social interaction emphasizes the ability to discuss and interact among learners. Reflection is the ability to respond and reflect the culture learned. Responsibility refers to the ability to build awareness of cultural differences and respect others and their culture.

The result of intercultural language and literature assessment refers to an assessment of the

aspects of knowledge, attitudes, skills, and values that appear in each learners. These aspects are a form of collaboration between language and literary judgments viewed from the intercultural side. So the teacher should be open to the differences in social and cultural backgrounds that underlie the development of language and literature built up in the learners. All aspects of judgment in terms of linguistic and literary scholarship should be summarized as a whole and based on the intercultural conditions underlying the developments experienced by learners. All aspects of the assessment, both technical and non-technical, must be fulfilled in its entirety so as to produce judgments that are appropriate to the criteria and aspects of the sociocultural assessment. Intercultural language and literature assessment should underlie the process of appraising the language and literature diversity based on the social and cultural aspects of learners, linguistic, scientific, and intercultural aspects in the assessment of intercultural language and literature learning is an inseparable component of judgment. They should be assessed as a series and guided by the principle of objectivity. Assessment can be done using test and non-test procedures. Competencies to be achieved and which will be assessed in language and literature learning with intercultural approach are intercultural competence and language mastery of the culture embedded in the learners. With the assessment criteria leads to aspects of knowledge, attitudes, skills, and values in the application of language and literature based intercultural. Teachers can transform the assessment of intercultural language and literature learning into value by a predetermined scale, and generalize it into uniformly scalable scales. The scoring scale that can be used is to use assessment criteria that is, very good, good, bad, bad, and not very good. Through appropriate assessment procedures, the assessment of intercultural language and literature learning will result in an objective assessment according to the level of language and literary ability of the learners, and meet the appropriate rating scale and certainly orientate to social diversity and learners culture so that assessment can be done

well and right. The results of this assessment show that competence in intercultural language and literature learning includes knowledge, skills, attitudes, and cultural values. The knowledge in question is the transformation of knowledge or understanding of culture. Skill in question is the ability to interpret other cultures or communicate well. The attitude in question is an open attitude by respecting the culture of others. The value in question is understanding and applying the learned cultural values. The assessment of language learning and intercultural literature is authentic assessment. Authentic assessment not only measures one aspect, but some aspects of the learners self are achievement, motivation, and attitude. Teachers must understand the learning process undertaken by the learners

so that teachers have readiness in pentransformasian science, creating a learning environment that is right, and fun for learners.

CONCLUSION

Assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to determine the

extent to which learners have achieved learning objectives. Language assessment refers to the achievement of learning goals to learners as a form of self-reliance through learning. Competencies in intercultural language and literature learning include knowledge, skills, attitudes, and cultural values, namely knowledge in the form of knowledge transformation or understanding of culture. Skills in the form of the ability to interpret other cultures or communicate well. Open attitude by respecting the culture of others. Values in understanding and applying cultural values are learned. The assessment of intercultural language and literature learning is an authentic assessment. Authentic assessment not only measures one aspect, but some aspects of the learners self are achievement, motivation, and attitude. Teachers must understand the learning process undertaken by the learners

so that teachers have readiness in pentransformasian science, creating a learning environment that is right, and fun for learners.

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