TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT OF SUNFLOWER SEED PROCESSING INDUSTRIAL AS A SUSTAINABLE HEALTH PRODUCT
ICTA 2017 || International Conference On Technology And Applications 29 July 2017 || ISSN: 2580-7072 Penyelenggara : Bhayangkara University Of Surabaya Penulis : Vieqi Rakhma Wulan
Today, herbal products are so phenomena in the society. Technology is so important in this industry. The benefits and the efficacy that contained in this product can be maintaned if the technology can be managed properly. This research present how the technology management is applied in the herbal product industry. This research is descriptive qualitative with sunflower seed oil as object and Sunflower CV. as subject. From this research found that the owner mostly use natural process and enough science technology to produce the herbal product. The owner do the management very well so the product really naturalness and usefullness. By combining the technology of science,equipment and machines which is self created, the efficacy of sunflower seed are well preserved.
Keywords: Technology, Technology Management, Sunflower seed oil.
Activities management are not only limited on company activity but also outside the company. Management activities are very abroad including in the field of technology. Today, it seems difficult to separate engineering and management activities (Nazaruddin, 2008). This is because the role of technology is so important for the company’s life cycle, including the sunflower seed processing industry into health product. Wrong technology can reduce the efficacy of sunflower seed or may even be life-threaten to the sufferers. Therefore, technology management is needed.
Many people do not know the usefulness of the flower that has the latin name of Helianthus Annuus Linn and belong to the family of compositae (Asteraceae). The function of Sunflower not only as an ornamental plant but also has many benefits. According to Cholid & Balittas (2009) sunflower can be utilized as foodstuff, biofuel, health and medicine, and other added value.
The benefit of health and medicine taken from the oil. This oil can be used as an anti aging skin care, either in supplements form or pure oil form that used for cooking. The sunflower seed has a balanced nutritional composition that is beneficial to body’s health, such as vitamin A, Vitamin E and good fats (omega-6) so that this oil can be used internally and externally for the body (Fahrudin, 2015).
The concept of healthy lifestyle “ back to nature” done by the community. This movement is also supported by WHO through their programs “Tradicional Medicine Strategy”. WHO also signed MOU, one of them is with India to promote traditional medicine. Sunflower seed oil can be an alternatif. The efficacy of sunflower seed oil can perceived by the society if technology done properly. Therefore, technology management is required. Besides to improve business efficiency, the existence of technology management also impact on improving business competitiveness and innovation creation.
Sunflower CV. is one of the company that produce health product with sunflower seed oil as raw materials. This CV was established in 2003, based in Blitar. The product is sunflower seed oil which then formulated into various products. This research focuses on how the company implements management of technology in the process of producing sunflower seed oil.
This research is a qualitative research so the test is done without using statistical tools to find meaning. The method is descriptive method. This method is used by searching the elements, characteristic, to illustrate why the phenomenon occurs. This method is also used to get in-depth data and contains the meaning of the actual data and exact data (Suryana, 2010). This method begins by collecting data, analyzing data and interpreting it.
The variables in this research are : sunflower seed oil, technology and technology management. Based on some understanding of variables, Setyawan (2008) concluded that the variable is an attribute or character or value of people, objects or activities that have certain variations set by the researchers to be studied and drawn conclusions.
This research uses qualitative approach. In this research did not use population an sample because this research departs from certain cases that exist in certain social situation in which case the research departs from the role of technology and application of technology management on the Sunflower CV. This is like what was said by spradley that cited by Sugiyono (2011) which uses the term of population as a “social situation” that consisting of three elements, namely : place, actors and activity that interact synergistically.
Data in this research consist of primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through a basic theory search of technology management to support the processing of research. It starts from collecting all the relevant literature and studying the researches that have been done before. The output of this literature study is the collection of relevant references with problem formulation that is about the application of appropriate technology management to the sunflower seed processing industry as a sustainable health product. Secondary data were collected through direct observation and depth interviews with the owners on sunflower CV. Esterberg (2002) suggest that there are several types of interviews, including structured, semi-structured and unstructured. In this research use semi-structured and unstructured interviews so then interviewee can be more free to express their opinions and interviewer can get the information beyond the guide question but it is still in the research area.
The method of qualitative data analysis according to Miles and Huberman, as quoted Sutopo and Arief (2010) are three technique there are data reduction, data presentation and conclusion.
3. RESULTS (Technology Management in Sunflower CV.)
3.1 Technology management definition
The word Technology comes from the Greek ‘Technologia’. Where Techne means art/craft and Logia means science, theory, study of something or branch of knowledge of a discipline. Technology can also mean entity that are useful to humans like machines, but can also include a wider range such system, organizational method and technique (Dj, 2009).
Technology refers to several things (Wanridz, 2015) :
- Application of equipment and method for the production process
- Method of applying knowledge or technical equipment
- Machines and systems are considered as a set
- A set of knowledge of a society or culture that is practical (applied)
Technology has some definition based on reasoning of the experts. Dosenit.com (2015) conclude the technology as follows :
- Technology is a practical method used to create something useful and can be used repeatedly.
- Technology is created by humans, many related to the practical activities that humans do daily.
- Creation and development of a technology is for the purpose of human development where technology was deliberately created to help facilitate the job and human activities.
- The basic of science that possessed by technology is scientific science which is a practical version.
- Every technology can be created and also developed in accordance with the needs and also the capabilities of humans. The limits of a technology are just human thoughts. As long as humans can look for new ideas then technology development will never stop.
Still according Dosenit.com (2015), some examples of technology are :
- Information technology
- Mechanical and industrial technology
- Computer technology
- Other technologies
If connected with management, then technology management is a discipline that bridges the field of engineering and science with the field of management devoted to planning, development and implementation of technology in order to achieve the strategic and operational goals of an organization. Thus described as follows (Khalil, 2005) :
Figure 1. Technology Management
According Sinaga (2010) Management is the process of planning, setting, supervising, and controlling. Or often we hear about management abbreviation is POAC (Planning, Organizing, Actuating, Controlling). The purpose of applying technology management is to create and/or add value to the company through technology either self-created or obtained from the outside. Creation/enhancement of value can be done through the creation of business, the creation/improvement of products and services or the creation /improvement of processes (Nazaruddin, 2008).
So it can be concluded that doing technology management means managing a technology starting from planning, Organizing, Actuating and Controlling the technology to create and add value to the company in order to achieve the strategic and operational goals of an organization.
3.3 Processing of sunflower seed oil
Cholid & Balittas (2009) suggests seed peeled with peeling machine before pressed and then heated 180º-240º F then mechanically pressed using expeller. The next stage is placed in the process of extraction solvent to separate the rest of the oil by washing chemically. The oil that produced is exported as crude oil or refined for local consumption. The purification process includes degumming process by adding hot water and combined with a centrifuge. The oil is then washed and given fragrance by the heating/cooling process and the final filtration does not require hydrogenation. Then if described is as follows :
|Seed of sunflower|
|By adding hot water & combined with centrifuge|
|By heating/ cooling|
Figure 2. Processing of sunflower seed oil
|Oil from Sunflower Seed|
(Images are processed based on proposed by Chalid & Balittas, 2009)
Almost same with Chalid & Balittas, Endah (2013) also described the processing of sunflower seed into oil and flour product through the process of drying, peeling, cleaning and sorting, smoothing and pressing the seed with screw press (cold pressing). The process of drying and sorting using the machine while other process without machine. Endah continued, for oil after produced from screw press machine must be purified first. The purification process includes degumming, neutralization and bleaching. Oil, flour, and other products are subsequently consumed for health improvement. If described is as follows:
|Seed of sunflower|
|Peeling & Cleaning|
|Smoothing & Pressing|
|Oil from Sunflower Seed|
Figure 3. Processing of sunflower seed oil
(Images are processed based on proposed by Endah, 2013)
Some of the precesses that need to be explained are as follows:
- Purification, through different several process in each company, but generally there are :
- The process of separating gum (sap), by dehydratation gum then followed by the centrifugation process with add chemicals that can absorb water (Ilham, et al, 2013)
- The process of separating free fat acid from oil or fats. It can using Caustic Soda, Natrium Carbonate, Solvent Extraction, Ethanol Amine and Ammonia (Ilham, et al, 2013).
- The process to remove undesirable dyestuffs in oil. It can using absorbent or chemicals (Ilham, et al, 2013).
- Extraction is the process of separating a substance from its mixture by dividing a solute to taking the solute from one solvent to the other solvent. (Ilham, et al, 2013). He continued for extraction, oil solvents or fats commonly used are petroleum ether, gasoline carbondisulfide, carbon tetra chloride, benzene and n-hexane. Caesari and Martadilla (2010) explained about the manufacture of make cooking oil from sunflower seed using extraction from n-hexane solvent. Lukito A., et al, (2004) also conducted comparative experiment of extraction sunflower seed oil using n-hexane and ethanol.
3.4 Implementation technology management in the company
From some processing of making sunflower seed oil above shows that the process is susceptible to using chemicals. Although used in small quantities according standard but chemicals remain dangerous, moreover as a medicine, it will be consumed in the longterm and continuously. Besides, by the process of heating or cooling can damage the substances that are in sunflower seed. Gunawan (2009) said that “the best oil is processed without heating or cold press”
Just for example, caustic soda (NaOH) in neutralization process. Juanda (2011) suggest caustic soda if contact with the skin causes irritation and burns and if swallowed, caustic soda can be fatal. Another example is n-hexane as extraction solvent. Outbreaks of nerve disorders that hit shoe workers in Japan and Italy. Doctors determining the disease was caused by the workers breathing air containing high concentrations of n-hexane that came from glues and solvents the workers used in assembling the shoes (US Department of health and human services, 1999). In Material Safety Data Sheet (2008) identification that n-hexane is danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation. Breathing vapors may cause drowsines and dizziness. Causes eye and skin irritation. Possible risk of impaired fertility. Aspiration hazard if swallowed. Can enter lungs and cause damage, also dangerous for blood, central nervous system, liver, and respiratory system.
Sunflower CV innovates how to keep the product still original, natural, nutritious, so the body remains healthy. They combining the simple tools and machine (own creation) with his knowledge, created a natural health products and safe to consume continuously. The process is as shown in figure 4.
|Seed of sunflower|
|Oil from Sunflower Seed|
|Deposition without chemicals|
Figure 4. Processing of sunflower seed oil
(Images are processed based on interview result to the owner-some are kept secret)
For other processing, the owner can’t reveal in order to maintain the confidentiality and authenticity of the product. But even so, seen from the general process in figure 4, the owner is trying not use chemical process at all in the manufacture of sunflower seed oil, neither in the purification nor in the extraction process until it becomes oil. According to the owner, in addition to maintaining health welfare, the process of such as degumming is unnecessary. It is because after conducted a number of research by the owner, evidently, gum from sunflower seed, also efficacious. Therefore, the gum doesn’t need to be removed. As well as the process of coloring (bleaching), fragrance and other process using chemicals, it is not necessary.
Although it doesn’t use a chemical process at all, pure sunflower seed oil can last up to 4 years (based on the results of the research owner). In his research, he also found, if sunflower seed oil splashed on dead rats then the oil is taken again, the bacteria becomes disappear and not in oil. This is indicates that the oil of sunflower seed can prevent the entry of bacteria.
In a day, sunflower CV produces about 500-700 bottles, marketed almost all regions of Indonesia and abroad (Inggris, Amerika). In the packaging, sunflower CV also innovate, initially, they using box now without box.
The owner of Sunflower CV has been doing technology management activities very well. There are apply technology as needed. The owner are wise enough and able to manage technology kindly. Because this is a herbal product industry. Where the product used both inside and outside the body. Inside by absorbed and outside by applied to the body. If wrong or over technology, the danger can be life-threatening.
Such cases of making oil from sunflower seed, although there is a technology to separate 2 or more mixtures using chemicals but in the process of medicine, chemicals are should not be used at all. Because, even though consumed in small quantities but if repeatedly, it will accumulate in the body.
So, in technology management, before decide what technology will be used, it need to be identified, if the output of production process is a product that will be consumed, then removed technology that using chemicals. The steps are as follows :
- Product identification
- Product consumed by the body, or
- Product are not consumed by the body, or
- Especially for product that consumed by the body (either absorbed or applied to the body), make sure, raw materials and production processes without chemicals at all.
- Management process begins, for example starts from planning
Planning of technology,
- What technology will be used, equipment, machines, science, computer or another technology
- How technology is used in the production process
- Quality of technology safety
- Pay attention with limitation/weaknesses of technology that will be used
- The management of technology process is done from the beginning of production until packaging and distribution
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