Parenting Parents In Developing Character Education In Early Childhood
PROCEEDING || International Conference on Education & Social Science (UK-ICESS) “Educational and Social Issues in the Changing Asia” 9-10 November 2016 || ISBN: 978-602-19859-7-7 Penerbit : Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang Penulis 1: Aisyah Penulis 2: Isabella Hasiana
Abstract. The character is a way of thinking and behaving that became the hallmark of every individual to life and worked together, both in the family environment, the community, the nation and the State. Individuals who are of good character are individuals who can make a decision and is ready to account for each result of the decisions that he made. Parents have a role in developing the characters so that the child has a strong foundation in being and behaving. Research conducted through a qualitative approach to the subject is addressed to as many as three people with the characteristics of parents who have a democratic, authoritarian parenting and permissive. Results of the study concluded that each pattern is applied to foster parents to the child, give effect to the development of character education.
Keywords: character education, parenting, early childhood
Character education is a term that is increasingly more and getting recognition from the society of Indonesia at the moment. Responsibility in educating the child surely cannot be delegated entirely to the school. Indeed essentially the responsibility of education done in the association between educators and students in a situation of education contained in the household, school or community. However, the educational process in this case give priority to the education of parents, mothers and fathers who became very influential towards the education of his sons, so expect a child is able to have potential and proactive in view of life in accordance with the values of the characters.
Preshool age is the age of a vulnerable child. At this age children have imitated against anything he saw. The family is the first and main environment for children who have a very big influence. The parent is the first and principal educators for their children. This is due that the parents of children first received education. Parents or mothers and fathers holds a very important ad very influential over the educatin of his children. Hurlock (1998) revealed that the people who are important to the child are parents, teachers and peers because they know the children of something good and not good. Education within the family is good and true, it will be very influential in the development and formation of his character.
Children are the gift and the hope of the future. Therefore, thechild should be prepared so that future human resources quality, healthy, moral as well as having the value of good character so need to be prepared early on.
Good parenting for child characters is a parenting parents who prioritize the interests of the child, but the parents who also control the child.
Children also live in the community, hanging out with the environment, and of course the children get from outside influences that may undermine the character of thechild so that it needs to be controlled by a parent by applying good attitudes within the family as well as examples or giving from parents.
The parents responsible for the survival of her children, so it is no doubt that the responsibility of education it is acknowledged consciously or not, is accepted with full heart. They could not deny that responsibility because the son is gift from Godand need to be instilled about character values since early childhood that is golden age (//alfiyah90.wordpress.com/2012/11/30/peran-orang-tua-dalam-membentuk-karakter-anak/.)
The golden age is the golden age of a child, i.e. a is the time when children have a lot of potential for development. At this stage of the highly precise time to instill the valuesof kindness, character, who is expected to be able to form his personality.
So that’s the importance of early childhood education done in maximizing the capabilities and potential of children. Utilizing the golden age as the time coaching, direction, supervision and the establishment of the children’s character from an early age. With character education at early stages,the expectation in the future children will be able to become a human personality well so beneficial to himself or the community, the nation and the state.
However, at the time of modernization is currentlymaking many families experience changes in fundamentals (Lickona in Saptono, 2011). This is due to the demands of the job so many families who have little time for the continuation of the close encounter between father, mother and children. Because often new parents got off work while his son was already a good night and went to work while the child still be lulled dreams. In fact, more and more families are due to the demands of the fulfillment of the necessities of life, chose not to live in one House, but rather the distant place of residence between the father, the mother and child. Not to mention the moreproblematic family: not harmonious, there a variety of domestic violence even divorce.
In other words, it can be concluded that the more families that could not function as the best place for the kids to get an education character, but at least the family function remains to be returned to its original function, i.e. basic education that starts from the family.
Character education will take place in vain, whereas there is no participation of the elderly in expanding it. Character education a greater emphasis on the habits of the child to do things that are positive. Customs is what will then become a strong imprint and embedded in the psyche of the child. Here are the values character education that can be trainedfrom an early age, namely: (1) religious; (2) to be honest ; (3) tolerance, (4), discipline; (5) hard work; (6) creative; (7) independence; (8) democratic; (9) curiosity, (10) passion (11) love the motherland, (12) to appreciate the achievements, (13) Friendly (14) Love peace ; (15) like to read; (16) care for the environment; (17) social care ; (18) responsibility.
Based on the background of the above, the purpose of this research is to know the role of parents in developing character education in early childhood.
In the great dictionary of the language of Indonesia explained that the character is the nature or characteristics of the psychological, moral, or manners that distinguish a person from another; in behaviour; character. Thus, the character is a way of thinking and behaving that became the hallmark of every individual to life and worked together, both in the family environment, society, nation, and State. Individuals who are of good character are individuals who can make a decision and is ready to account for each result of the decisions that he made.
Character education can also be described as character education plus, namely involving aspects of knowledge (feeling) and action.
As for the goal of charater education are: a. encourage habits and behaviours learners are commendable and in line with the universal values and cultural traditions of the nation religious; b. Enhancing the ability to avoid the deplorable traits that can ruin oneself, others and the environment; c. Fostering kink and sensitivity the learners towards the situation around so that it doesn’t fall into a distorted behavior both in individual and social; d. instill leadership and responsibilities of the learner as a successor to the nation.
Observe the variety of problems that occur in the community especially with regard to early childhood, then character education in Indonesia has developed into several grades. There are eighteen values character education, namely: (1) religious, attitudes and behaviours that comply in carrying out the teaching of the religion adhered,tolerant of other faiths, execution and life get along well with other religions; (2). To be honest, the behavior is based on the efforts made to assert himself as the man who can always be trusted in the word, action, and employment; (3) Tolerance, the attitude of action who appreciate the difference of religion, tribe, ethnicity, of opinions, attitudes, and actions of others different from him; (4) the discipline, actions that indicate the behavior of orderly and obedient at the various provisions and regulations; (5) the hard work, the behavior that shows an earnest effort in overcoming the various barriers to learning and assignments, as well as a job as well as possible; (6) creative, think and do something to generate new results or from something that has owned; (7) independent, attitude and behaviour that is not easily rely on others in completing tasks; (8) democratic, how to think, behave, and act the same rate that the rights and obligations of himself and others; (9) curiosity, attitudes and actions which always strive to know more profound and pervasive than anything he had learned, seen and heard; (10) the spirit of nationhood, ways of thinking, acting and insightful that puts the interests of the nation and the country above the interests of himself and his group; (11) Love the motherland, how to think, Act and do that show of loyalty, caring, and appreciation toward the language, the physical environment, social, culture, economy, and politics of the nation; (12) value the achievement, attitudes, and actions that encourage him to produce something useful for the community, and recognizing and respecting the success of others; (13) Friendly or communicative action, which shows a sense of love to talk, hang out, and working withothers; (2) peace loving, attitudes, words and actions that cause others to feel happyand secure over the presence of himself; (15) an avid reader, a habit of providing time to read the various readings which give virtue for him; (4) care for the environment, attitudes and actions that are always working to prevent damage to the surrounding natural environment, and developing efforts to repair the damage that has already occurred; (5) Social Care, attitudes and actions that always want to give help to other people and communities in need; (6) liability, attitude and behavior of a person to perform the duties and obligations, which should be done to the self, society, environment (natural, social and cultural), country and God.
Eighteen values character education above these is the result of the development ofcharacter education in Indonesia which began to be applied at the rate of early childhood education until College. It is intended, so that the younger generation havepositive characters and will ultimately bring the advancement of the nation and the State.
Parenting is believed to have an impact on the development of the individual. According to Baumrind (Santrock, 2003) there are to Baumrind (Santrock, 2003) there are three kinds of parenting parents, namely democratic, authoritarian and permissive.
Democratic parenting is parenting that prioritize the interests of the child, but does not hesitate in controlling them. Parents with this behavior being rational, underlying his actions were always in the ratio or thoughts. This type of parents also be realistic against the ability of the child, did not wish to overload that goes beyond the ability of the child. the parents of this type also gives freedom to the child to select and perform an action and his approach to the tepid nature. (Petranto, 2005).
Parenting is instead likely to set standards that are absolutely must be followed, usually coupled with threats e.g., if do not want to eat, then it will not talk to. The parents of this type tend to be pushy, reign and punish. If the child does not want to do what is said by parents, then parents of this type did not hesitate to punish the child.This type of parent also knows no compromise and communicate is usually one way direction (Petranto, 2005).
This parenting allows his son to do something without sufficient oversight. They tend not to admonish the child if the child warned/being in danger and very little guidance provided by them, so it is often preferred by children (Petranto, 2005). For example, children who entered the room without knocking on the door of elderly peopleleft alone, naked from the shower is left for granted without letting children see, rebuked the image which is not feasible for small children, with consideration of the child was a child. Actually, parentsaply parenting like this just do not want a conflict with their child (Debri, 2008)
Understanding early childhood in general arechildren aged under 6 years (UU Sisdiknas, 2003) and a number of expert education 0-8 years. Early childhood can also be defined as a group of children who are in the process of growth and development that is unique. They have a pattern of growth and development of the specialized according to the level of growth and development (Mansur, 2005).
Early childhood period often referred to with the term “golden age”. Where by this time almost all potentials through sensitive to grow and develop in a fast and very good. This can we see from the children often ask about what they see. When children question unanswered, then they will keep asking until the child knowsthe meaning.
This study used a qualitative approach in the form of case studies. According to Punch (in Poerwandari, 1998), a case study is special phenomenon that that is present in a limited context, although the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not entirely clear.
The qualitative approach is a process of research and understanding based on methodologies that investigating a phenomnenon of social and human problems. On this approacch, researcher made a complex picture, examining the words, a deatiled report of the views of respondents, and conduct studies on a natural situation. (Creswell, 1998).
Research procedures performed starting from: a) the planning, b) initiated the collection of basic data, c) more intensive data collection, d) closing the data collection was conducted after reaserchers got all needed information, e) complete, done to improve the results of data analysis and devise ways of serving it.
In this study a number of characteristics determined for the subject, among others, i.e. a family member (mom-dad), a company based in the region of sidoarjo-surabaya. The subjects who were selected based on informant interviewees or childcare (taken cara of Grandma take care of with respect to child care-taken care of by mother).
Data collection techniques used in this research is the observation and interview. The interview was done informally structured to parents of early childhood.
Data analysis used in this research is divided in 3 stages; namely (1) the reduction of data; (2) presentation of data; (3) the withdrawal of the summary.
On the subject of A, has entered the age of marriage for 10 years and had two children both of which still sit dibangku Elementary School classes 1 and 3. Both parentsare working, so parenting is entirely given over to Grandma. In applying the pattern of parenting apply, parents tend to be democratic. They liberate their children to do whatever they want the original accountable properly. The parentsand grandmother cooperate in providing the right kind of parenting to the child. The rules that are applied are always discussed to the child. For example, rules about polite words speak to older people, accustomed to a life of discipline, namely the existence of hours to learn and play. Besides his parents and grandmother are also applying the values of character is primarily about religious values. Because according tothis, A family’s religious attitude is the basis in the interweaving of interaction with others.
For the subject B, this family has one child aged 18 months. Both parents working so that caregiving was turned over to child care. Parents apply the parenting patternstend to be toward democratic rule. Moreover, although the children are in day care, parents always communicate with caregivers in care and a commitment to always implement character education in parenting. This is so that children feel confused in the following regulations are applied. In addition, parents have the principle that the cultivation of the character education should be done from an early age. This is because when the child is still in an early age, then the parents will easily teach the values of the character which certainly will have an impact on the child as she ages.
For the subject C, i.e., a parent who has two children by age 2 years and 4 years. Parenting two children carried out by the mother, because of working at home. While the father worked as a self-employed. Parenting style that channeled is permissive. This parenting style is usually done by parnets who are too good, tend to give much freedom to children by accepting and know all the behaviors, actions and demands, but less demanding attitude of responsibility and regularity of child behavior. Older people have the idea that their kids were little so that cultivation of the character education they think can be done at a time when kids have entered adulthood.
Character education in the family basically became a necessity. This is because the family is the Foundation of the first education in the life of every human being. So this character education will be effective when applied since early childhood through conditioning. For example, children cradle conditioned to speak with polite words with anyone, obey parents, clean up the environment in accordance with their ability, accustomed to a life of discipline began to get out of bed until towards the bed. In addition, it was also conditioned to perform prayers before and after doing the activity. It is also performed by the subject A and subject B. they consider that to apply the character must be done through the simple things first and the parents surely have regulations as well as awarding examples of course performed by the parents.
However, character education will take place in vain, if it is not applied early on to children and everyday life. This is due to character education, more emphasis to customs done by children to do positive things where it later will be a character that made an impression and ingrained in the child.
On the subject of C, parents not too stressed on character education. Still tend to allow and let the child’s behavior because it assumes they are still small. This is certainly going to bring impact on cultivation of character education owned by the child.
For example, if the parents do not infuse character education at early stages, would be an increase in crime, suicide among teenagers, divorce, abortion, the habit of cheating among students, the habit of stealing merchandise in the store among adolescents, and others. This is evidenced by the increasing numbers of cases of crime by teenagers each year according to data of the Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia. The data showed an increase in terms of quantity from 2007 which recorded about 3100 people teenagers involved in the case of criminality, as well as in 2008 and 2009 that rose to 3,300 and around 4,200 teenagers. ((Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia, 2010 dalam https://psikologiforensik.com/2015/01/30/ada-apa-di-balik-kriminalitas-remaja-indonesia).
Not only in terms of quantity, the report of the Central Bureau of statistics also make it clear that acts of crime committed by teenagers also improved in quality. Whereteenage delinquency conducted at first it was just a brawl or fight behaviours between friends, and now developing as acts of criminality such as theft, rape, the use ofdrugs to murder.
Cases of teenagers who were lively preached at the moment is the behavior of teenagers in a motorcycle gang. According to the data Neta S Pane as the Chairman Presidium of Indonesia Police Watch (IPW) throughout the year 2014 there were 38 cases of violence carried out by members of a motorcycle gang, which resulted in 28 people were killed and 24 people were injured (in https://psikologiforensik.com/2015/01/30/ada-apa-di-balik-kriminalitas-remaja-indonesia).
Thus the importance of character education instilled from an early age so that willminimize negative behaviors-behavior committed by teenagers.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Parents have an important role in the formation of character education for children.This is because the family is the main and most educational influence in the formation of character. It is therefore necessary for proper way of nurturing and educatingchildren so that it formed a strong character in the child to be brought up until he was an adult.
- In parenting parents surely also consider about the level of child development
- Early childhood is an impersonator who hand-picked so should parents need to keep any behavior, because children will mimic their parents.
- Parenting applied by parents also should be tailored to the situation and condition of the child at the time. There are times when parents behave democratically, there are times when parents also be authoritarian, but also there are times when parents are permissive.
Aziz, 2015. Pendidikan Keluarga: Konsep dan Strategi. Penerbit Gava Media
Fadillah dan Khorida, 2013. Pendidikan Karakter Anak Usia Dini: Konsep dan Aplikasinya dalam PAUD. Ar-Ruzz Media
Izzaty, 2005. Mengenali Permasalahan Perkembangan Anak Usia TK. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi. Direktorat Pembinaan Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan dan Ketenagaan Perguruan Tinggi.
Lestari, 2016. Psikologi Keluarga: Penanaman Nilai dan Penanganan Konflik Dalam Keluarga. Prenadamedia Group
Lewis, 2004. Character Building Untuk Anak-Anak. Kharisma Publishing Group
Kesuma, dkk, 2011. Pendidikan Karakter: Kajian Teori dan Praktik di Sekolah. PT Remaja Rosdakarya
Nuraeni, 2006. Pengaruh Pola Asuh Orang tua terhadap Pembentukan Kepribadian Anak Taman Kanak-Kanak. Skripsi. Universitas Negeri Semarang.
Saptono, 2011. Dimensi-Dimensi Pendidikan Karakter : Wawasan, Strategi, dan Langkah Praktis. Erlangga
Syaodih. Perkembangan Anak Usia Dini. Draft Buku Ajar PAUD.