Implementation Of Guidance And Counselling Services For Students With Disabilities At Special Need High School Of Bina Citra Pati
ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya 29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3 Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis : Lutfi Isni Badiah
Guidance and counseling program is a program that has an important role to the success of students with special needs in school. Guidance and counseling program will be successful if it is accompanied by the right strategy. SMALB Bina Citra Pati is one of special schools in Central Java that provides guidance and counseling program for student with special needs. Students at this school consist of students with mental retarded and students with hearing loss. This research used a qualitative descriptive analysis approach. The data collecting technique used interview, observation, and documentation. The research subjects consisted of principals, homeroom teacher, guidance and counseling teacher, and two students who had received guidance and counseling program. Data analysis was carried out on an ongoing basis with the data collection, data reduction, data display, data verification, and conclusion. The study concluded that guidance and counseling program for students with special needs include orientation guidance services, information services, educational guidance services, vocational information services, and career guidance services. Guidance and counseling method at SMALB Bina Citra Pati used interview method, directive counseling method, non-directive counseling methods and individual approach to optimize the ability of children with special needs. There were still some things that have not been in accordance with the theory of guidance and counseling program for student with special needs, such as (1) the lack of guidance and counseling teachers for children with special needs, (2) limited facilities and infrastructure of guidance and counseling, (3) the lack of coordination among guidance and counseling teachers, classroom teachers, and principals and (3) the lack of guidance and counseling evaluation for children with special needs.
Keywords: Implementation of Guidance and Counseling, children with special needs
Guidance and counseling program is one of the services that is inseparable from education. The purpose of this program is to optimize the development and potential of the children. All students are eligible for this service, not least children with special needs. Service for student with special needs should consider the needs of each needs, either individually, socially, morality and other needs as an impact of their disabilities.
Children with special needs often get problems as an impact of their disabilities, either directly or indirectly. The direct impact is in barriers in daily activities, while the indirect impact is activity restriction from society. Children with special needs often inappropriate treatment from parents and society. According to Wahyudi (1998: 22), society still thinks those children with special needs as part of a group of people to be pitied, so that negative attitudes towards people with disabilities tend to appear in people’s lives. That negative treatment creates a feeling of frustration, inferiority, and the feeling that is not accepted by the society that affect to the personality of children with special needs.
It is needed to give assistance to children with special needs in order to make them succeed in life. According to Suhari and Purwanta in Aisyah (2014), children with special need’s success in the development process can be seen when they are able to participate in society. In this case, school has big role in helping children with special needs in this case is counselors or special education teachers. Special school is one of the formal institutions that have an important role in the success of students with special needs. One of the rolesof special school is to run integrated guidance and counseling program in all educational activities, and it is carried out an intensive, continuous, and consistent. Hopefully, through the implementation of guidance and counseling program for children with special needs in special school, it will support the educational goals, help to overcome barriers of children with special needs, and help personal developmentof children with special needs optimally.
According to Sunardi (2005), until now the implementation of guidance and counseling program, there is still a tendency that although teachers already understand the urgency of guidance and counseling program for children with special needs, but in practice it has not been systematically and intensively. So it has not been provide maximum results as expected. The implementation of guidance and counseling in special school still mostly at a glance, incidental if there isproblem, less continuous, and do not have good administrative system. These problems happen because of the lack understanding of teacher about the functions of guidance;there is no guidance and counselingteacher in special schools, lack of facilities and infrastructure. If these problems are not solved, then the educational process will not go smoothly. This is accordance with Tohirin (2012), which states that the educational process in schools will not be successful if it is not supported by the implementation of guidance and counseling.
SMALB Bina Citra Pati is one of the schools that have guidance and counseling program for children with special needs. It is consisted of students with hearing impairment and students with mental retarded. Seeing this situation, the aim of this study was to (1) describe the implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB BK Bina Citra Pati; (2) describe the method that is used in guidance and counseling program for children with special needsin SMALB Bina Citra Pati; and (3) describe the obstacles in implementing guidance and counseling program for children with special needs.
The type of research is a field research (field research) which study that the process of data collection implemented in the field. Data collected focused on the implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati and obstacles faced in its implementation. This research is qualitative. According Sukmadinata (2007), qualitative research is research that aims to describe and analyze the phenomena, events, social activities, perceptions, and beliefs both corporately and individually. Thus, this research is descriptive and used analysis. So the display of the data obtained will be presented in descriptions form to uncover the implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati and obstacles faced in its implementation.tend
This research was conducted in SMALB Bina Citra Pati. This school has students with special needs which are students with hearing impairment, and students mental retarded. Those students are in grade X, XI and XII.
Sources of data in this study were obtained from the subject researches which are determined based on certain considerations of the researcher (purposive sampling). Subject researches were selected based on the criteria in order to make the data credible and accurate. Subjects research in this study consists of: 1 guidance and counseling teachers; the principal of SMALB Bina Citra; 6 classroom teachers (3 teachers of students with hearing impairment and 3 teachers of students with mental retarded); 3 students with hearing impairments, and 3 students with mental retarded. The chosen students are student who have been got guidance and counseling program and the representatives from each grade level. However, the primary subject is the guidance and counseling teacher, while 13 others are the seconder subject.
Data collection technique
Researchers used type of non-participant observation, where the researcher was not actively involved in activities and just passively observing during data collection.
Interviews were conducted to the subject research by using interview guide has been compiled about how the implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra, the methods used and any obstacles encountered. Interviews addressed to the guidance and counseling teacher aimed to obtain data on the implementation of guidance and counseling programand obstacles faced during implementation. Interviews with the principal aimed to obtain data on the general about school and school policies related to the implementation of guidance and counseling program. Interview with classroom teachers aimed to obtain data on cooperation between classroom teacher and guidance and counseling teachers. And interviews with students aimed to obtain data related to respond and benefits of the program guidance and counseling program for them.
The data collected through this documentation technique, among others: the profile of the school, the guidance and counseling programand guidance and counseling activity report.
4. Data Validity Testing
Data validity testing in this study conducted as follows:
- Doing a careful monitoring and continuous.
- Data triangulation is conducted to check the data using other data outside of the primary data in order to check the validity of the data and as the data comparison. Triangulation that is conducted in this study was techniquetriangulation used source triangulation. Techniques triangulation was carried out by collecting different data using observation, interviews, and documentation. Source triangulation was done by collecting the same data from different sources through interviews with different subject research.
- Discuss the data obtained with colleagues to complete the data in order to obtain more comprehensive data.
Data Analysis Techniques
Data analysis techniques in this study is conducted by collecting and reviewing all data obtained, then it is reduced by choosing, simplification, and focus on the things that corroborate the data obtained in the field. Then do the data display by describing in narrative form/sentences that are easy to understand. The last step is to verify and decision-making.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Guidance and counseling for students with special needs are services such as counseling, guidance and problem solving for students with special needs. For students with special needs, of course, they have a problem that is more complex and require more attention than normal students. Based on research that has been done on the implementation of guidance and counseling services in SMALB Bina Citra Pati, overall the implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati generally has been running well. For more details, research results will be described as follows.
1. Implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati
Students in SMALB Bina Citra Pati consist of students with hearing impairment and students with mental retarded. Therefore guidance and counseling program that is given is the focus to guide and assist students with hearing impairment and students with mental retarded in order to solve their problems and develop their potential optimally. Services provided include:
2. Orientation Service
Service orientation in schools is done by guidance and counseling teachers that work together with classroom teachers to provide knowledge to the students to enter the schools as new world for them, especially for students who are just stepping on class X. Teachers provide an orientation/ introduction about school and its environment. Implementation of this service is also considering to the children needs. For students with hearing impairments, orientation services more emphasis on the communication that can be understood by other students which is use sign language. For the students with mental retarded, service orientation is emphasized on the introduction of the school environment. The explanation to them is adapted to the student’s ability in capturing the information. Through this service orientation, students are expected to develop their potential.
3. Information services
Information services in SMALB Bina Citra are not only for students, but also involving other parties that can provide major influence on the students, especially parents.Information provided is usually about the education information and career information that is in accordance with the type of student needs.
4. Distribution and Placement Service
Distribution and placement service is a placement service/distribution in the classroom/study groups, as well as extra-curricular activities according to their talents and interests and personal circumstances and disorder. Implementation of this service in SMALB Bina Citra Pati has been good enough to place students with hearing impairment and students with mental retarded according to the capabilities, needs and desires of the students themselves. Such as: to the determination of classes and study groups and the selection of extracurricular activities. So that students are able to develop their maximum potential according to his ability.
5. Guidance Service
Barriers faced by the students with special needs would affect the ability to learn. Students with hearing impairment got difficulties with communication so that the learning process should require a special media and methods. For students with mental retarded, due to slow in receiving information, student learning must always be repeated continuously. To help the difficulties encountered, of course, tutoring services is very important for students. Implementation of the tutoring services in SMALB Bina Citra Pati has been applied properly to all students. Students who have difficulty in learning are given more attention from guidance and counseling teachers and cooperating with the classroom teacher.
6. Career Guidance Service
Beside the barriers in learning, students with special needs also have difficulty in selecting a career. Their Conditions impact to their ability. It is add with the negative perspective of people who think that they would not be able to work in the community. For that,they really needed career guidance for their future. Implementation of career guidance services in SMALB Bina Citra is already run well. It can be seen from the program and training to train their soft skills that are useful for themand it is customized for each needs. School also provide facilities and cooperate with the Training Center of Pati to conduct regular trainings every week (twice a week). The training that is given is carpentry, sewing, cooking, and computer training.
7. Individual Counseling Service
For Students with mental retardedoften unable to behave appropriately to the society. For students with hearing impairment according to Somantri (2007), they tend to be moody, suspicious, unsympathetic, trust, jealousy, unnatural, selfish, and vindictive. Then individual counseling services in SMALB Bina Citra Pati carried out aimed to give service in depth to the problems of individual. Application of guidance and counseling program overall has been running well. Guidance and counseling teachers work together with classroom teachers in the process of guidance and counseling face-to-face. guidance and counseling teachers know that it is needed to cooperate with the classroom teacher, because students spend more time with the classroom teacher. So that classroom teachers must know the problems of the student well.
B. Methods of Guidance and Counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati
The method used in Guidance and Counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati is good enough. Here are some of the methods used in the implementation of Guidance and Counseling program, among others:
a. Interview method
Application of the interview method is good enough. Interview method is always used in Guidance and Counseling program for students with special needs in SMALB Bina Citra Pati. Guidance and Counseling teachers use this method to explore a problem when students are having problems or difficulties. Guidance and Counseling teachers look for facts to ask questions directly to the students.According to Guidance and Counseling, this method is the easiest way to find student problem.
b. Directive methods
Application of the directive method is good enough. It can be seen when there are students who need services of guidance and counseling . In this case, the guidance and counseling teacher in collaboration with classroom teachers and principals in providing solutions to problems/difficulties of the students. During this time the directive was quite effective method for students. They tend to follow all the suggestions of the Guidance and Counseling teachers, classroom teachers and principals.
c. Non directive methods
Non-directive method is student-centered methods to solve their own problems. Guidance and Counseling teacher only acts as a facilitator and provide direction only, while students are enabled to find solutions / answers of its own problems. During the application of a non-directive method on the implementation Guidance and Counseling services for students with special needs in SMALB Bina Citra Pati is not optimal. This is because the ability of students with special needs is not good enough to handle their own problem. They need intense guidance in resolving the problem. So sometimes classroom teachers, Guidance and Counseling teachers and principals intervene to help to solve the problem of students.
C. Obstacles in the implementation of Guidance and Counseling program
Overall, the Guidance and Counseling program for students with special needs in SMALB Bina Citra Pati is good enough. However on certain aspects are lack / not appropriate, such as:
1. Lack of human resources in SMALB Bina Citra Pati
Standard ratio between Guidance and Counseling teachers and students is 1:12. This means that one teacher guiding 12 students. But in SMALB Bina Citra Pati there is only one guidance and counseling teacher should guide all students in the school. Start from classes X-XII and for students with hearing impairment to students with mental retarded. Even when the classroom teacher was absent, Guidance and Counseling teacher replaces the classroom teacher in the classroom to teach. Because of that, the implementation of Guidance and Counseling programis not optimal, although it has been assisted each classroom teacher that are 6 people.
2. Lack of facilities and infrastructure
It can be seen from the Guidance and Counseling class that is still not optimal. Starting from the media until incomplete development logbook and individual guidance and counseling services. The Implementation of Guidance and Counseling program for students often only given guidance without noted (recorded) which progress is.
3. Lack of coordination between of Guidance and Counseling teachers, classroom teachers, and principals.
Although in practice of Guidance and Counseling teachers sometimes helped by the classroom teacher, but coordination between of Guidance and Counseling teachers, classroom teachers and principals in SMALB Bina Citra Pati has not established intensively. This is evident from the lack of coordination of the principal, classroom teachers, and of Guidance and Counseling teachers in setting of Guidance and Counseling program for students. Sometimes Guidance and Counseling teachers must develop the program by himself. That’s causing delays of optimal guidance and counseling to students.
4. The lack of evaluation of the implementation of Guidance and Counseling program for student with special needs in SMALB Bina Citra Pati
Evaluation of the implementation of Guidance and Counseling program for student with special needs in SMALB Bina Citra Pati still relatively very rarely done, even to say almost never carried out an evaluation. Guidance and Counseling program implementation in schools is limited only to come face to face with students who are in problems and give solution. After that there was no evaluation whether the process in solving problem is successful or not. Ideally Guidance and Counseling program should have notebooks (logbook) for each individual contains all the problems of the student, Guidance and Counseling program is given, and the evaluation process to monitor the progress and changes that have been experienced by students after being given guidance of their problem.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Patigenerally has been running well. It can be seen from the range of services provided include: Orientation Services, Information Services, Distribution and Placement Services, Career Guidance Service, Guidance Servic, Individual Counseling Service. All services provided to the student with special needs by concern to each need, each characteristic, and the problems of students.
- The method used in guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati is good enough.There are some methods used in guidance and counseling program, among others: Interviews, directive method and non-directive method. However, the implementation of non-directive method is less optimal because it is lack appropriate with the student’s characteristic.
- Overall, the implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati is good enough.However, in certain aspects there is a lack/not appropriate, such as: lack coordination among guidance and counseling teacher, homeroom teacher and principal. SMALB Bina Citra also lack of facilities and infrastructure, and lack of evaluation of the implementation of guidance and counseling program in SMALB Bina Citra Pati.
1. For Principal
It needs a review about management of guidance and counseling in SMALB Bina Citra Pati, it is related to the facilities and infrastructure that support the guidance and counseling program for students with special needs.
2. For guidance and counseling Teachers
Guidance and counseling teachers should conduct an evaluation for every guidance and counseling program that has been given to students with special needs. This is to it easier in monitoring the success guidance and counseling program in solving problem students with special needs. Besides that, it is also needed a review aboutguidance and counseling program and should increase coordination with classroom teachers and principals. Guidance and counseling teachers should also be insensitive to the problems and needs of students by conducting need assessment. So they do not need to wait for the reports from teachers and students.
Aisyah, Umi. 2014. Strategi Layanan Bimbingan dan Konseling Bagi Siswa Tunanetra MTs Yaketunis Yogyakarta. Tesis. Pascasarjana UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta
Somantri, Sutjihati. 2007. Psikologi Anak Luar Biasa. Bandung: Refika Aditama
Sukmadinata, Nana Saodih. 2007. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.
Sunardi. 2005. Pedoman Pelaksanaan BP di SLB. Bandung; Pendidikan Luar Biasa Fakutas Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Ilmu Pendidikan.
Tohirin. 2012. Bimbingan dan Konseling di Sekolah dan madrasah Berbasis Integrasi. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.
Wahyudi, Ari. 1998. Menggugah Kepedulian Masyarakat Terhadap Pendidikan Penyandang Cacat Melalui Pengembangan Model Penyuluhan Pendidikan. Jurnal Remediasi dan Rehabilitasi (JRR) tahun 8 No 19. 1998. 21-29
Lutfi Isni Badiah, M.Pd is a lecturer of guidance and counselling major in PGRI Adibuana Surabaya University. She got master degree at University State of Surabaya. Her research focus on inclusion education and learning of children with visual impairment. Contact author via phone 085727908278 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org