THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENTING EDUCATION IN IMPROVING PARENT’S SKILLS IN HANDLING CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD) IN KB-TK ISLAM TERPADU PERMATA PROBOLINGGO


ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya
29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3
Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya

Penulis  : Ana Rafikayati

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Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disabilities that affect a child’s social, behavioural, and communication skills. In children with these disorders, their brains handle information differently than most children’s do. Because of that, parents get difficulties in raising and handling them appropriately. In fact, in order to minimize the disruption that occurs in children with ASD, the role of parents is the most important. 

Parents are the closest persons and who are always with the children. Therefore, it is necessary to give parenting education to parents or it is commonly called parenting education. This study aimed to know the effectiveness of the implementation of parenting education in improving parent’s skills in handling children with ASD in KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo.

This research used quantitative approach which used pre-experimental research. Research design which used was one group pre-test post-test design. The research subject was 12 parents of children with ASD in KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo. The collecting data technique in this research used writing test and practice test that is measured by observation using rubric observation form. Data analysis techniques used non parametric analysis which is Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test with 5% significance.

The results of this study shown that the result of Z = -3.077 and P = 0.002 with a significance level (a) 5%. Based on these results, P = 0.002 was smaller than 0,005, so it can be concluded that the implementation of parenting education was effective in improving parent’s skills in handling children with ASD in KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo.

Keywords: Parenting Education, Parent’s skills in Handling Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

 

INTRODUCTION

Identification of children with special needs in a family will lead to a variety of responses to the family. Although the response or reaction will be different for each family, according to Gargiulo (2012: 121), generally family response begins with shock, disbelief, denial, anger and depression. Many parents are hard to believe so they tried to check their child to another doctor with hope they will get different diagnosis (not ASD). In this case, Parents need the help of professionals in helping them dealing with this critical situation.

Early intervention for children with ASD is very important. Maulana (2010: 20) states that the earlier a child is diagnosed and interfering with, the greater the opportunities for children to minimize the symptoms as the impact of autism. Interventions done by providing intensive stimulation as early as possible at the age of 2-5 years so that the child is able to get out of his own world. In this case, the role of parents is very important. This is because the parents are the closest persons to children and who are always with the children.

Nevertheless, many parents still do not understand their children. Many parents have difficulty in raising their children. Parents do not know what to do to optimize the development of the child. In general, the topic of children with special needs is very limited to be accessed. It is increasingly make it harder for parents in getting information about how to handle their children.

Zepeda et al (2004: 8) states that many parents of children with special needs find difficulties in understanding their children and need more information about the characteristics of children, child development and how to handle their children. This is in accordance with the results of interviews to one of special teacher in KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo explained that out of 12 parents of children with special needs at his school, 8 have difficulty in recognizing the characteristics of children with ASD who hace different characteristic with other children, 10 confused about the development of children with ASD and 11 are confused how to handle them to optimize the potential of children.

Besides, the role of parents is one of the successful key of early intervention. Parents are the persons who are always with the children throughout the day, if the parents cannot give positive stimulation to the child, and then the child will be difficult to develop. Stimulation to children with ASD is very important to make them realize there is another world than his. Sunardi and Sunaryo (2007: 208) states that the intervention of children with ASD will be more effective if the family is able to play a role through various changes of attitude and actions that support the learning of language and speech of the child.

Based on that explanation, parents need to be trained to handle children with ASD properly. Beside send the child to school, parents also need to be taught how to handle their children at home to optimize the development of children. To be able to have the competence, it is necessary to give learning or training for parents (parenting education). Implementation of education by empowering parents is one way to optimize a child’s development.

Brown (2000) suggest that parenting education is the giving of knowledge and parenting skills that are specific to parents and caregivers with the goal of optimizing the growth and development of children. Parenting education focusing on specific parenting skills eg, stage of growth and development of children, how to improve physical health, social and emotional of the child.

Parenting education is expected to be a solution in increasing parents’ parenting skills. Furlong et al 2000 in Van Ryzin et al (2016: 43) explains that the group-based parenting educations is effective in improving parenting skills and improve the mental health of parents. It is accordance with Thomas & Zimmer-Gembeck (2007) that explains that the results of the parenting education program are the increasing of parent’s confidence, the warmth of the parents to their children, reducing the pressure / stress of parents and increasing the skill of positive parenting skills.

Based on that explanation, the researchers took the “The effectiveness of parenting education in improving parent’s skills in handling children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo” as the title of the study. With the implementation of parenting education to parents, parenting skills of parents can be increased so that children with ASD can develop optimally in the family who really understand them.

Procedure

The approach that is used in this study was a quantitative approach which is pre-experimental research type. The design used one-group pretest-posttest design. Treatment was given to the same subject group. The subject group was given treatment for a certain period of time. Measurements were performed before and after treatment, and try to look for the difference between the results of pretest (T1) with the results of posttest (T2). The design of this study can be seen in Table 1 as follows.

 

Tabel 1 One Group Pre test – Post test Design

Pre-test Treatment Post test
T1 X T2

Information:

T1   : Pre-test result

X     : Treatments (the implementation of parenting education)

T2   : Post-test result

The research subjects in this study were 12 parents of children with ASD who are their children is student at KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo. The data that is collected in this study was parent’s skills in dealing with ASD. This study was focused on 3 skills which are (1) understanding of the characteristics of ASD, (2) understanding of the stages development of children with ASD, and (3) skill in doing the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy for ASD, The data collection technique used written test on the characteristics and stages of development of children with autism content, and test performance (practice) on the application of ABA therapy content. Instrument which are used are as follows.

  • Written test in understanding the characteristics of children with ASD consisting of 20 multiple choice questions and five essay questions.
  • Written test in understanding developmental stages of children with ASD consisting of 20 multiple choice questions and five essay questions.
  • Observation from about the implementation of ABA therapy for children with ASD that is assessed with Likert scale (5 scales) based on performance rubric that consisting of 18 indicators.

Then, the result of those 3 skills is averaged in order to know the parent’s skills in handling children with ASD in general. Furthermore, the data was analyzed. Data analysis techniques used a non-parametric analysis techniques which is Wilcoxon sign rank test. The level of significance in this study were (α) 5%.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Pre-test is given before the intervention through written test and test performance (practice). Tests carried out for ± 30 minutes. Then, the subjects’ researches are given the intervention which is parenting education. Parenting education was held for 15 sessions with (3×60 minutes) duration for each meeting. Implementation of the intervention carried out in the classical (group). The materials were: (1) understanding of the characteristics of ASD, (2) understanding of the stages development of children with ASD, and (3) skill in doing the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy for ASD. In its implementation, each material was delivered in five meetings. After the intervention, then it performed the post-test to measure the effectiveness of parenting education. Post-test was conducted for ± 30 minutes.

  • Parent’s Skill in Understanding the Characteristics of Children with ASD

Understanding the characteristics of children with ASD is the basic ability of parents in raising children. Parents need to know why the specific symptoms appear in children and how to handle it. Based on the research results, parent’s skill in understanding the characteristics of children with ASD before and after parenting education as follows.

 

Table 2 Pre-test and Post-test result Understanding of the Characteristics of Children with ASD

Subject Pre-test result Post-test result
IA 40 65
NP 35 55
NU 45 75
II 50 70
AD 45 60
RY 35 65
DY 35 60
LS 55 80
DS 30 50
SN 40 60
MD 40 55
MZ 50 75
Mean 41,67 64,17

Based on these data, it is known that the parent’s skill in understanding the characteristics of children with ASD was generally increased. The increase is from 41.67 into 64.17 or it is increased by 22.5%.

  • Parent’s Skill in Understanding the Developmental Stages of Children with ASD

The developmental stages of children with ASD are different with others. Cognitive developments, language development, social and emotional development of children with ASD are different with children in general. Therefore, parents need to be trained about this so parents are able to monitor the children’s development so that the problems due to autism are not getting worse. Based on the research results, parent’s skill in understanding the developmental stages of children with ASD before and after parenting education as follows.

 

Table 3 Pre-test and Post-test result Understanding of the Development Stages of Children with ASD

Subject Pre-test result Post-test result
IA 35 60
NP 35 65
NU 40 65
II 45 65
AD 40 70
RY 35 60
DY 35 65
LS 50 70
DS 35 60
SN 40 75
MD 40 70
MZ 45 80
Mean 39,58 67,08

Based on these data, it is known that the parent’s skill in understanding the developmental stages of children ASD was generally increased. The increase is from 39.58 into 67.08 or increased by 27.5%.

  • Parent’s Skill in Doing ABA Therapy for Children with ASD

One of the methods in early intervention is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). ABA is widely applied in Indonesia. Through this method, children are trained in performing various skills such as communicating, interacting, talking, speaking, and others. It is important to give children with ASD in order to make children with ASD live in a society and demonstrate behavior that is common and accepted in society. Parents as persons who always with the children, also need to be trained to apply ABA method. In general, the implementation of ABA method itself is done 4-8 hours a day. Based on the research results, parent’s skill in doing ABA therapy for children with ASD before and after parenting education as follows.

 

Table 4 Pre-test and Post-test result The implementation of ABA Therapy for Children with ASD

Subject Pre-test result Post-test result
IA 25 50
NP 20 50
NU 20 55
II 25 55
AD 30 50
RY 20 55
DY 30 60
LS 35 60
DS 25 50
SN 20 50
MD 30 55
MZ 35 60
Mean 26,25 54,17

Based on these data, it is known that the parent’s skill in doing ABA therapy for children with ASD was generally increased. The increase is from 26.25 into 54.17 or increased by 27.92%.

  • Skills Parents in Handling Children with ASD

Based on the results of the study, from the three skills in handling children with ASD which are understanding the characteristics of children with ASD, understanding the development stages of children with ASD, and the skill in doing ABA therapy for children with ASD,  those three skills are averaged to determine the ability of research subjects in handling children with ASD in general. The results can be seen in Table 6 as follows.

 

Table 6 Pre-test and Post-test result Skills in Handling Children with ASD

Subject Pre-test result Post-test result
IA 33 58,33
NP 30 56,67
NU 35 65
II 40 63,33
AD 38 60
RY 30 60
DY 33 61,67
LS 47 70
DS 30 53,33
SN 33 61,67
MD 37 60
MZ 43 71,67
Mean 35,83 61,81

Then the data been analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test by SPSS 21. Based on data analysis, it is known that the Z = -3077 with P = 0.002 with a significance level (a) 5%. Based on these results, P = 0.002 was smaller than 0,005, so it can be concluded that the implementation of parenting education was effective in improving parent’s skills in handling children with ASD in KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo.

This is in accordance with the opinion of Thomas & Zimmer-Gembeck (2007) that explains that the results of the parenting education program are the increasing of parent’s confidence, the warmth of the parents to their children, reducing the pressure / stress of parents and increasing the skill of positive parenting skills.

Moreover, parenting education is designed to provide information on parenting strategies to bring together the needs of parents and children. Hotchkiss, Biddle and Sacramento (2009) describe that the parenting education program can reduce the problems of children and provide information on how to raise children to parents.

Brereton (2009), which took the object of study of children with ASD also explains that parenting education program for parents of children with ASD have a major benefit to the parenting skills, including how to maintain good health and nutrition for children with ASD.
it can be concluded that the implementation of parenting education was effective in improving parent’s skills in handling children with ASD. With this increased skills, parents can provide a deeper role as a parent in order to optimize the development of the children.

Conclusion

The results of this study shown that the result of Z = -3.077 and P = 0.002 with a significance level (a) 5%. Based on these results, P = 0.002 was smaller than 0,005, so it can be concluded that the implementation of parenting education was effective in improving parent’s skills in handling children with ASD in KB-TK Islam Terpadu Permata Probolinggo.

 

REFERENCES

Brereton, Avril V. (2009). Autism Spectrum Disorders Parent education and skillss training: a practical and effective way to help. Monash University: ACT-NOW Fact Sheet 50.

Brown, MB. (2000). Recommended Practices: Parent Education and Support. (Online), (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/fam/best/crp-part100.html accessed on 16 December 2015).

Gargiulo, Richard M. (2012). Speial Education in Contemporary Society: An Introduction to Exceptionality 4th ed. California: Sage Publication.Inc.

Hotchkiss, Jacqueline Suzanne., Biddle, Kimberly dan Sacramento. (2009). Implementing parenting education policy to overcome parental stress and foster educational and behavioral competence in children. California: California State University.

Maulana, Mirza. (2010). Anak Autis: Mendidik Anak Utis dan Ganguan Mental Lain Menuju Anak Cerdas dan Sehat. Jogjakarta: Kata Hati.

Sunardi dan Sunaryo. (2007). Intervensi Dini Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus. Jakarta : Depdiknas.

Thomas, R. & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy and Triple Positive Parenting Program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, pp. 475-495.

Van Ryzin, Mark J dkk. (2016). Family-Based Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents. New York: Psychology press.

Zepeda, Marlene dkk. (2004). Improving Children’s Behaviour and Attendance through the Use of Parenting Programmes: An Examination of Good Practice. London: Institute of Education, University of London.

 

Biodata

Ana Rafikayati born in Bojonegoro on 16 December 1988. In 2011, she graduated from the Department of Special Education, State University of Surabaya UNESA. She continued her master degree in the same university in 2012 and she graduated from there in 2014. She has range of experiences as a teacher and consultant of learner with special needs especially for learner with hearing impairment since 2011. She started to be a special education lecturer in 2015 in University PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya. She joined range of project about special education such as the development of recorded book and orientation mobile skill of learner with visual impairment in 2010, the development of communication method for learner with special needs in 2012 and 2013, the development of post school transition for learner with special needs 1n 2014 and 2015.