THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTAX TEACHING MATERIAL ON LITERATURE TEXT-BASED TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES OF PBSI STUDY PROGRAM OF UNIVERSITY PGRI ADI BUANA SURABAYA Agung Pramujiono
ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya 29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3 Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis 1: Agung Pramujiono Penulis 2: Ira Eko Retnosari
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Based on the observations and evaluations that researchers do in the implementation of lectures in the course of Syntax in Indonesian Language and Literature Education Study Program of University PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya found various problems.The urgent problem to be solved is the lack of teaching materials and the absence of syntax instructional materials that use real language data in a variety of contexts. This problem will be solved with the development of teaching materials of literary text-based syntax. The purpose of this research was to develop teaching materials of Syntax text-based literature to improve student results of PBSI Study Program of University PGRI Adi Buana PGRI Surabaya. It described the assessment of experts, peers, and student response as prospective users. This research was the development of the Research and Development (R & D). The development model used was a 4-D model, which consisted of a) Define stages, b) Design, c) Develop, and d) Disseminate (deployment) stages.
The data collections were done by using a questionnaire, which included a questionnaire
assessing the quality of teaching materials and assessment of the effectiveness of teaching
materials. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Based on the analysis of data it revealed that known to the average results of expert assessment of the quality of teaching materials of 4.13 in both categories; the average peer assessment of faculty of 4.26 with very good categories; The student response to the effectiveness of teaching materials stating„strongly agree‟ was 55.56%, 38.89% „agree‟ on the seventh aspects of assessment and 5.56% disagreed on two aspects of evaluation. It can be concluded that the teaching materials of Syntax-Based Text Indonesian Literary developed was eligible to be used as teaching materials and learning resources.
Keywords: the development of syntax teaching material, literature text-based, learning outcome
In Curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature Study Program of Teacher Training and Education (Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan/FKIP) University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya, the subjects are grouped in cluster of syntax linguistic subjects. This
course aims to make students competent in understanding the nature and scope of the study of syntax, word, phrase, clause, and sentence in Indonesian language.
Based on the observations and evaluations that the researchers do in the implementation
of the lecture courses of Syntax, it has been found various problems. These problems can be grouped by component (1) a source of learning, (2) students, and (3) the lecturer. It urgently needs to be pursued is solving the problem of limited instructional materials and teaching materials that contextual text-based syntax. It is necessary for the development of teaching materials Syntax text-based learning-oriented literature and discovery learning. Being based on a literary text Syntax teaching materials to be interesting because of the examples used by the real and contextual sentences. In addition to the development of teaching materials do text based syntax will integrate linguistic literature and literature so that in addition to master the
linguistic aspects, students also get to know of Indonesian language literature.
By orienting the model of discovery learning will make students able to develop their
intellectual discipline will need to find the data, process the data, and use logical thinking to the data (Suchman in Suyanto and Jihad, 2013). Joyce, et al. (2014) stated that the discovery / inquiry learning can increase scientific knowledge, produce creative thinking abilities, and skills in obtaining and analyzing data. With the discovery learning can also train students to apply directly one of the models that are applied in Curriculum 2013 (Kemendikbud, 2013). Thus, it will provide a meaningful experience for the students when they later carry out a real teaching practice in schools.
The research problem is formulated as follows. How is the quality of products subject
material development of literary text-based syntax and discovery learning models based on expert assessment, peer faculty and student response?
1. Material Development
In language learning, there are five components that can not be separated, namely students, teachers, learning materials, teaching methods, and evaluation of learning (Kitao, 1997). In connection with the learning materials refer Kitao view Allwright (1990) which states that the learning material will make students learn and become a source of learning for learning a wide range of ideas and activities. Teaching materials also provide a rationalization for what he did in the classroom. Although the function of teaching materials to meet the needs of students, but often learning material is not prepared in accordance with the conditions and characteristics of students (O’Neill in Kitao, 1997). Further stated the existence of teaching materials or textbook will help students review and prepare lessons, save time and money, and help students in adapting and improvising.
Teaching materials can be defined as a set of materials or substances subjects are arranged in a coherent and systematic as well as figures show full of competencies that students will learn in learning activities (Hernawan, et al., 2014). In line with the opinion of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research Lt/National Center for Competency Based Training (Bandono 2009) teaching material is defined as any material that is used to help teachers/instructors in carrying out the teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Material in question can be material written or unwritten material.
Teaching materials are ineffective according to Rajit (2009) due to the following factors. (1) the material developed is not based on the needs of students, (2) does not fit the context local environment, (3) diction less suitable/appropriate, (4) do not have the sensitivity cultural, (5) is not supported by the government, (6) do not have a track distribution, and (7) are not evaluated properly.
Development of teaching materials is done through the development of research methods. According Sugiyono (2009: 427), the method of research is the development of research methods used to examine so as to produce new products and further test the effectiveness of the new product. There are several models of instructional design development, for example, Dick & Carey, ASSURE, 4-D, ADDIE, Front-end System Design (Personal, 2009).
2. Literary Texts as the Linguistic Data of the Subjects of Syntax Literature is a creative activity, a work of art (Wellek and Warren, 1993: 3).
Luxemburg, et al. (1984: 5) states the literature is a creation, a creation which is mainly a
spontaneous surge of emotion. Literary texts, according to Luxemburg, et al. (1984), are divided into three types (genres), the narrative text, the text of drama and poetry texts.
As a creative work that uses the language, literary language has uniqueness. According
to Wellek and Warren (1993: 15), the literary language full of ambiguity and homonyms (words that sound the same but different meaning) and has categories of irregular and irrational as gender (the kind of words that refer to sex in order language). English literature is also full of the association, referring to the expression or works created before. Connotative literary language so it is not just a referential language which simply refers to one specific thing.
Literary language has the function expressive, showing a tone and the attitude of the speaker or writer. English literature trying to influence, persuade, and ultimately change the attitude of the reader.
In connection with the activity of reading literary texts, Teeuw (1991: 12) asserts that the reading process is a process of giving meaning to certain texts that require knowledge of code system is quite complicated, complex, and diverse. Necessary understanding of the three codes when the reading of literary texts, ie the code language, cultural codes, and code literature. Text poetry can not be understood if it does not understand the language used by the poet. Language has rules at the level of phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic. In addition, language is not a stand-alone. Language is bound by the social context and cultural context. Therefore, understanding the language also means understanding the culture. On the other hand, it should be understood that the literary language was typical. Bound by a code of literary language literature, for example, must be beautiful, symbolic and connotative.
Observing the language of literary texts that have specific characteristics, it would be
very interesting if the literary text is used as a data language in linguistic studies, especially in the course of Syntax. By using literary texts, linguistic data is used will be real and have a variety of user contexts.
3. Discovery Learning Model
Model discovery learning is a learning model that put more emphasis on the discovery of concepts or principles that are previously unknown. Use of Discovery Learning, wants to
change the condition of passive learning to active and creative. Changing learning teacher oriented to student oriented. Changing the mode of Expository students only received the overall information from teacher to student, Discovery mode find information about themselves (Kemendikbud, 2013). Interest Discovery Learning is providing opportunities for learners to be a problem solver, a scientist, historian or mathematician. Through these activities, students will acquire, implement, and find things that are beneficial to him. The steps of learning with models of discovery learning is as follows. (1) provision of stimuli, (2) problem statement, (3) data collection, (4) data processing, (5) draw conclusions or generalizations.
4. Learning Outcome
In connection with the notion of learning outcomes, Brown (2007) says, “Learning outcomes are the result or consequence of some learning activity”. The next learning outcomes are categorized into five, namely (1) knowledge and understanding, (2) skills, (3) attitudes and values, (4) enjoyment, inspiration and creativity, and (5) action, behavior and progression.
According Bodger and Seaborne (Gerung, 2013), learning outcomes are “… anymore or less permanent change of behavior or which is their result of experience”. Sudjana (2003: 22) says that the learning outcomes are the ability of the students after receiving a learning experience. So, learning outcomes are through a process or activity within a specified period. The views of Sujana (2003) are in line with the opinion of Kennedy, et al (2009) which relates to the competence learning outcomes/competency. With reference to the views of The Higher Educationand Training Awards Councilof Ireland (HETAC), Kennedy, et al (2009) says, “competence refers to the process of governing the application of knowledge to a set of tasks and is typically acquired by practice and reflection. Some aspects of performance insituations may depend on the innate characteristics of an individual. “Furthermore competency learning outcomes are categorized into five (1) competence-context, (2) competence-role, (3) competence-learning to learn, and (4) competence-insight.
In Curriculum 2013, the competence of learning outcomes of students are categorized into three, namely (1) the competence of spiritual and social attitudes, (2) the competence of knowledge, skills and competence. In the course descriptions Syntax dikemukan competencies expected of a student to understand (1) the nature and scope of the study of syntax, (2) the word as kontituen forming a sentence, (3) the phrase, (4) clauses, (5) the sentence, and (6) expansion of a single sentence.
This type of research is Research and Development that is a type of research that is used to examine so as to produce new products and then to test the efficacy of such products (Sugiyono, 2009: 427). Research development refers to the model of development of teaching materials 4-D (four-DModel) proposed by Thiagarajan and Semmel (Wahyudi, 2014) which consists of four phases: definition (define), stage design, stage of development, and the deployment phase (disseminate). 4-D model of development used because the researchers have clear stages so as to suit the purposes of development of teaching materials syntax that will be done.
This research data in the form of a response/feedback validator, colleagues/lecturers, and students on the quality and effectiveness of teaching materials developed. Therefore the
techniques of data collection techniques used are questionnaire, which includes a questionnaire assessing the quality of teaching materials. These instruments include the assessment of (1) to see teaching materials, (2) content, (3) the feasibility of the contents of teaching materials, and (4) the use of language. The evaluation of the effectiveness of teaching materials include (1) the fulfillment of competency mastery of syntax, (2) the fulfillment of the purpose of writing materials, (3) the fulfillment of the functions of teaching materials, and (4) the fulfillment of the usefulness of teaching materials. The instruments used in data collection are as follows.
The data were analyzed descriptively by using the mean value of answers validator / respondents of each item questionnaire. Response results illustrate the quality of teaching materials in general and each aspect of teaching materials measured part. The formula used to calculate the average is as follows.
x = (Nurgiyantoro, 2001:361)
RESULT OF THE RESEARCH
1. Assessment of teaching materials by experts
An assessment of the quality of teaching materials was done by Dr. Sujinah, M.Pd., the Head of Graduate Program of Indonesian Education, University of Muhammadiyah Surabaya as a specialist course materials of Syntax and Dr. Rufi‘i, S.T., S.Si., M.Pd., the Head of Graduate Program of Educational Technology, University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya. In addition to experts in the field, the two experts also several times won a competitive grant competition. The results of the second expert assessment of the quality of the teaching materials are presented in Table 1 below.
Table 1 Assessment by experts on the Quality of Teaching Material
No Aspects Assessed
V1 V2 Average
A Performance 4,14 4.0 4.07 Good
B Completeness of the content 5 5 5 Very good
C Content feasibility of teaching material 4 4 4 Good
D The use of language 4 4 4 Good
Cummulatve average 4,29 4,25 4,27 Good
The results of the expert assessment of the effectiveness of teaching materials are
presented in Table 2 below.
Tabel 2 Result of Assessment of the Effectiveness of Instructional Material
A. Fulfill the needs of competency mastery of syntax 83,33 16,67 0 0
B. Fulfill the goal of writing of teaching materials 100 0 0 0
C. Fulfill the function of teaching materials 100 0 0 0
D. Fulfill the usefulness of teaching materials 50 50 0 0
Average 83,33 16,67 0 0
Based on Table 1 it can be seen the average cumulative results of expert ratings of 4.27 in both categories. Thus the teaching materials developed for Syntax has good quality. While
based on Table 2 can be seen the results of expert judgment on the effectiveness of teaching materials for all aspects mean 83.33% 16.67% strongly agree and agree.
2. Instructional Material Assessment by Fellow Lecturers
An assessment of the quality of teaching materials is done by fellow lecturers consisting of: (1) Dr. Taufik Nurhadi, M.Pd., (2) Dr. M.Shoim Anwar, (3) Dr. Sunu Catur Budiyono, M. Hum., and (4) Dra. Rahayu Pujiastuti, M.Pd. The results of the peer assessment of the quality of lecturers teaching materials are presented in Table 3 below.
Table 3. Result of Assessment of Instructional Material Quality by Fellow Lecturers
Assessment Result Category
DS1 DS2 DS3 DS4 Average
A Performance 4,14 4,14 4,29 4,00 4,14 Good
B Completeness of the content 5 4,67 5 5 4,92 Very good
C Content feasibility of teaching material 4 4 4,17 4,17 4,08 Good
D The use of language 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 Good
Cummulative Average 4,41 4,33 4,49 4,42 4,41 Very good
The results of the peer assessment of the effectiveness of lecturers teaching materials are
presented in Table 4 below.
Tabel 4 Effectiveness Assessment Results of Instructional Material by Fellow Lecturers
Based on Table 3 can be seen the average cumulative assessment of the quality of teaching materials by faculty peers by 4.41 with very good categories, while Table 4 it can be No Indicator
A. Fulfill the needs of competency mastery of syntax 75 25 0 0
B. Fulfill the goal of writing of teaching materials 70 30 0 0
C. Fulfill the function of teaching materials 60 40 0 0
D. Fulfill the usefulness of teaching materials 58,33 41,67 0 0
Average 65,83 46,07 0 0
seen by the average cumulative faculty peer assessment on the effectiveness of teaching materials for all aspects of 65.83% strongly agree and 46 , 07% agreed.
3. Effectiveness Assessment Results of Instructional Material by Students
The results of student assessment of the effectiveness of teaching materials which developed are presented in Table 5 below.
Tabel 5 Effectiveness Assessment Results of Instructional Material by Students
Based on Table 5 note on the effectiveness of teaching materials stated strongly agree 53.93%, 41.90% agree, and 4.17% disagree. Students who disagree on the usefulness of the indicators meet the instructional materials because they assume prefers to use information from the Internet than reading a book.
Based on the analysis of data, it was found out that the average cumulative results of expert assessment of the quality of teaching materials amounting to 4.27 with both categories; relating to the effectiveness of teaching materials 83.33% 16.67% strongly agree and agree. The mean cumulative assessment of the quality of lecturers teaching materials by 4.41 with very good categories; associated with the assessment of the effectiveness of teaching materials 65.83% and 46.07% strongly agree. There is also the student response to the effectiveness of teaching materials strongly agree 53.93%, 41.90% agree, and 4.17%. It can be concluded that the teaching materials Text-based Syntax of Indonesian language Literature which is developed is eligible to be used as teaching materials and learning resources.
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Agung Pramujiono dosen Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia FKIP Universitas PGRI AdiBuana Surabaya. Pendidikan S1 pada Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia FPBS IKIP Malang (1990), Pendidikan S2 pada Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra PPs Unesa (2005), Pendidikan S3 padaProgram Studi Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra PPs Unesa (2012). Bidangpenelitian yang diminati yaitu Pragmatik, Analisis Wacana, dan Pembelajaran Bahasa. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ira Eko Retnosari dosen Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia FKIP Universitas PGRI AdiBuana Surabaya. Pendidikan S1 pada Program Studi Sastra Indonesia Unesa(2002), Pendidikan S2 pada Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra PPs Unesa
(2008).Bidangpenelitian yang diminati yaitu Pragmatik, Analisis Wacana, dan Sintaksis. Email: email@example.com.