LEARNING TO PAINT USING THE COLORED PENCIL MATERIAL FOR STUDENTS IN SMA NEGERI 9 MAKASSAR
ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya 29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3 Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis : Sepbianti Rangga Patriani
Learning to paint with colored pencils material is easier than the other dyes to students, especially for senior high school students. However, in the practical activities, for senior high school students of painting with the colored pencils material requires technique and skill in the making and directing effort by technique mixing colors so that a painting to have aesthetically value.
This research was conducted on students XI SMA Negeri 9 Makassar. The population consisted of 122 students of class XI SMA Negeri Makassar, namely class XI IPA 1, XI IPA 2 IPA 3 XI, and XI IPA 4 with a total sample consisted of 40 students. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of students to learn painting with color pencils material and the factors that affect learning ability in painting with colored pencil media. Collect data using observation and practice tests. Data from the observation techniques and practice tests analyzed using quantitative analysis techniques in a variety of percentages. The result of the data shows that in general the students are quite capable of painting with colored pencil material. The factors that affect the ability of students in painting using colored pencil media that lack of knowledge of students about the elements in the painting, and the lack of student mastery of the use tools and color materials in painting.
Keywords : Learning to paint, Colored Pencils Material
Art education is a form of learning that effort to develop one’s personality in order to prepare people to become citizens of an independent and accountable through activities that have to do with the feeling of beauty through the media statement of line, color, texture, shape, volume and space. Art education is implemented in the form of learning activities basically include learning theory, appreciation and art skills, especially learning that involves the painting.
In general, teaching art in schools are dominated by the practice studio experience based on the other things like ability of students, availability of time, and the facilities. It aims to develop students’ skills in the creation of works of art and theoretical knowledge to appreciate. Event working art starts from the sensitivity of students to value the beauty around him. Material from outside it, digested in itself is processed into a form that is created, and then pours into a form of art. The classification of types of art work is found in sculpture, sculpture, decorative arts, painting, and printmaking. However, the focus of this research is the painting.
Painting activities is not a stranger to the students; therefore the level of education had previously introduced knowledge of painting. In painting, the students have the freedom to express ideas and soul in a work art order to create an inner satisfaction to their self and to inspire the soul of the audience. Tools and materials can also stimulate students’ motivation to work. The tools and materials used in painting consists of pastels, colored pencils, watercolors, oil paints, batik and other mixed materials (mixed media). Some of the tools and materials, the authors focus only on one medium is colored pencil.
In general, learning to paint with colored pencils material category is easier than the other dyes for students, especially high school students. For high school students, painting with colored pencils material requires technique and skill in the making and directing are pursued by blending colors to the painting can be aesthetically value. Therefore, students who want to have the ability to paint with colored pencils material required to continue to practice applying variety of colors so that students can have the ability to know the simple color variations.
Based on these descriptions, the authors are interested for doing this research to examine and determine the extent of students’ ability to work and to create a painting with a medium color pencil based on the principles in painting, especially the use of light and dark (color mixing), composition, and placement of objects within the image are, and to know the students’ ability to imagine and express his ideas in painting. In addition, to determine the factors that affects the ability of students in painting with colored pencil media.
1. Definition of Teaching and Learning
Learning is a process of people to achieve a wide range of competencies, skills, and attitudes. Learning is also the activities a person to obtain a change in him through training or experience. Baharuddin and Esa Nur Wahyu (2009: 15), explains about some of the characteristics of Learning include:
- Learning is characterized by a change in behavior (behavior change), which means that the results of the research can only be observed in the behavior, ie there are changes behavior from not know to know, from unskilled become skillful.
- Changes in behavior are relatively permanent, which means that the change in behavior that occurs because studying for a specified time will be fixed or unchanging. However, changes in behavior will not be stuck for life.
- Changes in behavior should not immediately be observed during the learning process is ongoing, is a potential behavioral changes.
- Changes in behavior are the result of training or experience.
- Experience or training can provide reinforcement. Something that strengthens it will provide encouragement or push to change the behavior.
2. Definition of Painting and Drawing
In a large dictionary Indonesian Balai Pustaka explains that: the picture is a copy, items (people, animals, plants, etc.) are made with pencil on paper. Meanwhile, the draw is to make a picture or painting. Moeliono (1989: 250). Furthermore, Sofyan Salam (2001: 4) argues understanding of the art of drawing and painting as follows:
The art of drawing is usually dominated by linear scratches produced by a pencil, pen or marker (marker). Including the state of the image to explain something or idea (drawing diagrams, construction drawings, illustrations), funny pictures to entertain (cartoon), images to criticize (caricature), or an image that simply created as an outpouring of feeling alone. Meanwhile, art painting is usually refers to the work produced through scratches relatively wide color produced by a brush or palette.
As according Soedarso SP. (1990: 11), painting is an aesthetic experience through pronunciation in two- dimensional by using lines and colors. If a painting is more prominent element of the line as the works created with a pen or pencil, that work is called “picture”. Meanwhile “painting” is an element of color is more powerful.
Basically drawing and painting have the same creation process that is giving strokes of color on a flat paint. When drawing is dominated by a pencil, pen or marker, then the painting is characterized by a kind of painting using a brush.
3. Elements – Elements and Principles of Painting
There are elements – elements and principles that need to be known in painting, among others:
The lines are a few points which is continuous with one another. Line in general is the limit of the boundary shapes. Moreover, in psychology line can be described the character of a person based graffiti line shape is created. In painting, the line is the most important because the line can define fields, forms, and so a lot of space to give a variation on a painting (Nooryan Bahari, 2008: 98).
Forms are all what we see, objects, points, lines and areas of measurable magnitude, can be viewed in color and texture can be perceived (J.Budhi Raharjo, 1987: 43). In painting, the definition of form is a depiction of something that can be seen by the eye then it felt moved in the image plane through the incision, stripes, color, etc. With the naked eye forms are found in nature can be seen in a real and varied nature of both the color and tone, so the form of the object captured by the eye of nature can serve as inspiration in creating a painting.
The space is a mix of their six sides, to form three-dimensional objects. Space is unlimited and undisturbed. As well, in a space painted elements are just as fanciful notion as a painter working at the top of the field of two-dimensional (J.Budhi Raharjo, 1987: 47). Elements of space in painting is the impression of the boundary formed by the breath of the object or objects and objects in the air outside of space the size of paper is used when we are painting.
The depiction of the existence of a space is closely related to the symptoms perspective, therefore, painting is a way to show something perspective object or objects drawn with the comparison based on the size and color and congruent with objects visible to the naked eye.
Color is the most prominent. As in physics, color is the impression caused by light in the eye. According to the science of materials, color is a kind of dye pigments. In the paint color has an important role. With a color variation on a painting can give the impression of an object that is more vivid, and the technique of using dark colors with bright displays can create objects in the painting look real.
In color theory from Brewster it set of red, yellow, and blue as the primary color (primary colors), because these colors are individual color elements are not obtained from mixing other colors. All colors come from three primary colors, namely red, blue, and yellow. By mixing two primary colors with the same comparison, there will be three secondary colors (two colors); namely orange, green, and purple (red + yellow to orange, blue + yellow to green, red + blue to purple). With the color (color center) which colors created by mixing primary colors and secondary colors. Known as color between because these colors are among the first and second color on the color wheel Brewster (Abdul Aziz Said, 2006: 91).
Color Wheel Model Brewster
The composition is an important element in the creation of a work of art. A shape or object in the painting should be set placement order not to cause any irregularities, the point to get a view of harmonious balance. Composition means arrangement. In other words that the composition is the arrangement of the elements such that gives his impressions of indivisibility, rhythm, and balance in a work so that the work was complete, clear, and compelling. The composition of the painting will look beautiful if the rhythm is clear and varied and the composition has the center of attention (focus) and has a dynamic balance, so that the work would seem more alive.
4. The Concepts about Color Pencils
The term “pencil” comes from the Latin is Pencillus which means a small tail that is intended for brush to draw with ink. In middle of Europe, the term of pencil attached for drawing or painting tool that is popularly known as “Potlot ” of the Dutch language “Pot” means a place and “Lot” means a significant lead. Pencil drawing tool whose use is relatively practical and easy to obtain (Sofyan Salam, 2001: 73). There are also various types of pencil graphite pencil i.e., Konte, and colored pencils.
In general, color pencil is favorite thing by many people because it offers a wide range of colors. Color pencil is usually packed in a box consisting of various types to contain 72 color options as well as easy and practical to use. Similarly, the use of the technique is almost the same color pencil with a pencil in general, but can be developed by mixing colors. The color mixing is done by making scratches parallel or intersecting of colors that want mixed. Mixing colors can also be done by mixing the powder contents of the desired color pencil for adding on the paper.
Besides the usual color pencil, there is also a kind of color pencils made from a material that will melt if it is given by water. This pencil can be referred as a watercolor in dry form and color. The benefit of color pencil is for settlement, provision of color in the image that has been completed. In this case, that the harder levels pencil, the more it can be used to produce smooth lines and thin. Meanwhile, the soft level pencil leads that can produce solid lines when pressed to produce the impression of dark colors, so if it is scratched is not pressed will produce a line of transparent or colored light.
C. RESEARCH METHOD
This research is quantitative descriptive research is research about the collected data related to students’ ability to do the learning painting with colored pencils media through observation and practice tests. The population in this research was all students of class XI IPA, SMA Negeri 9 Makassar totaling about 122 people. The results of the samples obtained are each classification grade XI respectively of 10 students. Bringing the total number of samples in this research were 40 students of class XI SMA Negeri 9 Makassar.
Data collection techniques used were test observations (observation) the organization of the practice of painting are held three meetings with the practice test twice. The process of implementation is done at random in each class will be researched .besides that the writer is using practice tests and test documentation.
As for the ability of students in painting with color pencils can be seen from the value obtained through the practice test results painted using color pencils. The criteria for the assessment of mastery of tools and materials, the preparation of the composition, unity and accuracy of form, fit, perspective, proportion accuracy, balance (balance), the granting of darkness, and finishing.
A score or value which presented to demonstrate the student’s ability to use the media to paint colored pencils, then can be made in the form of tables and analyzed using quantitative analysis techniques in a variety of percentages then described the test results to know what components are controlled and not controlled by the students concerned. To get the value of the average student, then the score is
processed using the formula:
Where: = the sum of each score of students in accordance elements assessed.
N = the total number of elements assessed.
Assessment work conducted by three students painting the assessment team based on the classification of the values below:
- 8-9 = Very capable
2. 6-7 = Capable
3. 0-5 = Lack of Capable
Furthermore, determining that students who receive grades 6 and above were able to paint using colored pencils, while students who scored 5 down was not capable of painting with colored pencil media.
Based on test data using the students’ skills in painting materials color pencil then presented below were the result data checks the value of the cumulative results of three assessment teams to paint test results using material colored pencils by Townsend and Burke (in Tangsi, 2007: 20) to process data and derive a percentage of a value, can be searched by the following formula:
Ket. Fk (cumulative frequency) = the value obtained from the scores of students overall highest to lowest score
N = total number of students
D. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based on analysis of data obtained through observation and testing practices and documentation (student’s work) as an instrument to collect data that in general the students quite able to master the technique of painting using colored pencil media. Although there are still some students who are less able to paint using colored pencil media. However, through regular practice and guidance from parents and teachers can help students in learning to paint using materials of color pencils.
Table 1. Condition Capability Level Student Class XI SMA Negeri 9 Makassar In Painting Material Using Color Pencils
|No.||levels of ability||Score||cumulative frequency (fk)||Percentage (%)|
|1||Very capable||8 – 9||6||15|
|2||Capable||6 – 7||19||72,5|
|3||Lack of Capable||0 – 5||5||12,5|
The description of the results of data analysis based on data test capabilities to paint using colored pencils media, showed that there were 6 (15%) of students who are very capable of painting with colored pencils material with weights ranging from grades 8 to 9, there were 19 (72.5%) students capable of painting with colored pencils material with weights ranging from grades 6 to 7, and 5 (12.5%) students who are less able to paint using materials of color pencils.
In connection with this, it can be seen from the work of students who apply these elements in painting, among others:
- Mastery of tools and materials to show that there were 6 students (15%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there are 26 students (65%) that received scores ranging from 6 to 7, and there are 8 students (20%) who received grades ranging from 0 up to 5.
- Preparation of the composition of the image indicates that there were 6 students (15%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there are 31 students (77.5%) who received scores ranging from 6 to 7, and there are 3 students (7.5%) who scored ranges from 0 to 5.
- The accuracy of the shape of the object indicates that there were 6 students (15%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there were 24 students (60%) that received scores ranging from 6 to 7, and there were 10 students (25%) that received scores ranging from 0 to 5.
- The accuracy of Perspective shows that there were6 students (15%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there were 24 students (60%) were got value ranging from 6 to 7, and there were 10 students (25%) that received scores ranging from 0 to 5.
- The precision of proportions shows that there were 4 students (10%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there are 31 students (77.5%) who received scores ranging from 6 to 7, and there were 5 students (12.5%) who received scores ranging 0 to 5.
- The balance object painting shows that there were 10 students (25%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there were 28 students (70%) that received scores ranging from 6 to 7, and there were 2 students (5%) who received scores ranging from 0 to 5
- Giving the dark light on an object painting indicates that there were 7 students (17.5%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there are 26 students (65%) were got scores ranging from 6 to 7, and there were 7 students (17.5%) which received scores ranging from 0 to 5.
- Finishing off painting the picture shows that there were8 students (20%) who received grades ranging from 8 to 9, there were 20 students (50%) that received scores ranging from 6 to 7, and there were 12 students (30%) that received scores ranging from 0 to 5.
Table 2. Scores Students In Color Pencil Painting Material Using Aspect Based Overall Rating
|No.||Number of Students||Name||Class||scores from the assessment team||Amount||Average||Final score||classification|
|1||285827||Nurul Asmarani||XI IPA 1||7||8||8||23||7,6||8||Very capable|
|2||285815||Hidayah Sabir||XI IPA 1||8||9||7||24||8||8||Very capable|
|3||285836||Westerini Lusdani||XI IPA 1||7||7||7||21||7||7||Capable|
|4||285850||Destinia Pratiwi||XI IPA 1||6||6||5||17||5,6||6||Capable|
|5||285873||Yudi Prawinata||XI IPA 1||7||7||6||20||6,6||7||Capable|
|6||286016||Nurjannah||XI IPA 1||7||8||8||23||7.6||8||Very capable|
|7||285943||Tri Endrawati||XI IPA 1||7||7||6||20||6,6||7||Capable|
|8||286019||Rofiqoh Nur Hasanah||XI IPA 1||7||8||7||22||7,3||7||Capable|
|9||285931||Nina Adriana||XI IPA 1||7||8||8||23||7.6||8||Very capable|
|10||285801||A. Sri wahyuni||XI IPA 1||6||7||6||19||6,3||6||Capable|
|11||285802||Abd. Rahmat Danial||XI IPA 2||7||8||8||23||7,6||8||Very capable|
|12||–||Asrini Otaviani||XI IPA 2||6||6||5||17||5,6||6||Capable|
|13||285874||Adil setiadi||XI IPA 2||6||6||5||17||5,6||6||Capable|
|14||285997||Arnol Sumitro||XI IPA 2||7||7||6||20||6,6||7||Capable|
|15||285880||Bambang||XI IPA 2||5||5||5||15||5||5||Lack of capable|
|16||285846||A. Wahyuni Pratiwi||XI IPA 2||6||6||6||18||6||6||Capable|
|17||285826||Nurhusna||XI IPA 2||7||8||7||22||7,3||7||Capable|
|18||285902||Rezky Pratiwi H.||XI IPA 2||7||7||7||21||7||7||Capable|
|19||–||Rizki Amaliah||XI IPA 2||7||8||7||22||7,3||7||Capable|
|20||285917||A. Nur Fauzianah||XI IPA 2||6||6||6||18||6||6||Capable|
|21||285829||Rendi Agon||XI IPA 3||7||8||8||23||7,6||8||Very capable|
|22||285854||Hana Meylani P.||XI IPA 3||7||7||6||20||6,6||7||Capable|
|23||285982||Rismayani||XI IPA 3||5||5||5||15||5||5||Lack of capable|
|24||285956||Al Ikhwan M.||XI IPA 3||6||7||7||20||6,6||7||Capable|
|25||285952||Abd. Qayyum||XI IPA 3||6||6||5||17||5,6||6||Capable|
|26||285887||Jumiati||XI IPA 3||6||6||5||17||5,6||6||Capable|
|27||285840||A. Annur||XI IPA 3||6||6||5||17||5,6||6||Capable|
|28||285986||Whelsy Antika S.||XI IPA 3||6||6||6||18||6||6||Capable|
|29||285837||Yadi Suradi M.||XI IPA 3||7||8||6||21||7||7||Capable|
|30||285951||A. Muttia Yunita||XI IPA 3||7||7||7||21||7||7||Capable|
|31||285834||Wahyuli Mastang||XI IPA 4||6||7||6||19||6,3||6||Capable|
|32||285832||Satriani Usman||XI IPA 4||7||8||7||22||7,3||7||Capable|
|33||285941||St. Najmi||XI IPA 4||6||7||6||19||6,3||6||Capable|
|34||285926||Irfan Wardana putra||XI IPA 4||5||6||5||16||5,3||5||Lack of capable|
|35||285954||Adi Narta||XI IPA 4||5||6||5||16||5,3||5||Lack of capable|
|36||285943||St. Hardiyanti Nur||XI IPA 4||6||7||6||19||6,3||6||Capable|
|37||285890||Magfirawati S.||XI IPA 4||6||6||6||18||6||6||Capable|
|38||285974||Muh. Asdar A.||XI IPA 4||6||6||6||18||6||6||Capable|
|39||286004||Ira Magfira BM.||XI IPA 4||5||6||5||16||5,3||5||Lack of capable|
|40||285919||Arvita Sari||XI IPA 4||7||7||5||19||6,3||6||Capable|
As there are factors supporting and inhibiting factors that affect the ability of students in painting with color pencils material. The supporting factors are generally facilities the tools and materials used by students in painting using colored pencils quite complete. Neither exemplification works of landscape paintings village could support the practice of class XI student of SMAN 9 Makassar in painting using colored pencils. Factors that affect the ability of students in painting with colored pencils material, i.e., students are not able to master the technique of using colored pencils as well as lack of knowledge of students about the elements of painting and used in the paintings. In addition, the lack of talent that can affect the ability of students in painting using colored pencils that make it difficult for them to work and learn the art of painting.
Figure 1. Practice using the media of colored pencils Painting
by students of SMA Negeri 9 Makassar
Figure 2. The work of colored pencil media paintings by students of SMAN 9 Makassar
in accordance with the criteria of the elements of painting
Figure 3. Results of color pencils media paintings
by students of SMAN 9 Makassar which is not in accordance
with the criteria of the elements of painting
Generally the students of class XI IPA at SMAN 9 Makassar considered quite capable of painting with colored pencil media. It can be seen through the students’ ability of students to apply elements of art in the visualization of painting works. These elements are the mastery of tools and materials, the preparation of the composition, precision of form, fit, perspective, proportion accuracy, balance, giving the darkness, and the final completion of the painting. Although there are still some students who are less able to paint using colored pencil media.
Related to that, draw or paint a visual process that depends on our ability not only to see but also to visualize. in addition, painting activity involves thoughts and feelings to realize the works or creations of paintings. So as to develop creativity and the ability to paint, especially with the media color pencil, obtained the coaching and exercise routine and supported by tools, talent, attention, and interest in learning the earnest to the work produced have good quality.
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Sepbianti Rangga Patriani a lecturer in Fine Arts Education Department, University of Adi Buana Surabaya. She received her bachelor in Fine Arts Education, State University of Makassar and her Master Degree in Art Studies, Indonesian art institute of Yogyakarta. Authors interested in discussing research on learning to paint with colored pencils media at high school students. The author can be contacted by email at firstname.lastname@example.org