Using Numbers Game in The Guidance Program for Elementary School’s Students
ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya 29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3 Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis 1: Aniek Wirastania Penulis 2: Hanim Faizah
The numbers game in the guidance program is meant as a way of students to operate the numbers in a mathematical question, where this is done by operating the numbers through addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Therefore, this media can help counselors to address the problem of children who cannot operate figures where this may result in a lower math scores. Guidance and counseling program conducted by using the concept of the operation of the figures has a special counselee targets. This numbers game is intended for children ages 9-12 years. At this age children in the development process, so they need a means to facilitate the development, cognitive and affective aspects.
Keywords: Numbers Game, Guidance and Counseling Program
The game is a technique that has been around since the dawn of human civilization progress. Techniques and pattern always progress according to human civilization. From the traditional to modern, simple to complex, from which also rely on what is owned by human’s body, then uses the objects that are nearby to use multimedia designed to prepare the game into art, so pleasant, helpful and meaningful for the game’s player.The playing and games have a different meaning in the playing therapy literature. Play is seen as a natural behavior that fun found in the life of the human and the animal. (Beach, 1945: Plant, 1979)According to Santrock (Suwardjo & Eliasa, 2010: 2) the definition of playing is a fun activities carried out for the benefit of the activity itself. While Erickson & Freud (Suwardjo & Eliasa, 2010: 2) holds that play is a form of adaptation by human beings that are very useful in helping children over the anxiety and conflict. Piaget (Suwardjo & Eliasa, 2010: 2) see that play as a method to improve the cognitive development of children. While Hurlock (Suwardjo & Eliasa, 2010: 2) give opinions about play is the activities to be carried out on the basis of a pleasure and without considering the end result. Play activities done voluntarily and without compulsion or pressure from outside parties.The Number Games Mentoring Program is a collaboration of the group guidance program and the numbers operation, such as addition, reduction, division and multiplication. Number Games, according to Sugianto and Rostika (2013), can develop children’s creativity starts from the number introduction’s process until the process of finding the solution of the problem using number operation. It can train creativity student in finding solution.
Donald G. Mortensen and Alan M. Schmuller (Yusuf, 2009: 6) defined Guidance as that part of the total educational program that helps provide the personal opportunities and specialized staff services by which each individual can develop the fullest of his abilities and capacities in terms of the democratic idea. Besides that, Guidance, according to Shertzer and Stone (Yusuf, 2009:6), is a process of helping an individual to understand himself and his world. The guidance program done in this research through number game technique. Number Games is a guidance technique that is done by number operation, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Number Games is the technique often used in the guidance and counseling children. Sugianto & Rostika (2013) stated that this media can be used to facilitating the student’s cognitive and affective development.Implementation guidance activities can be done individually and groups. The Guidance of the group is done when a problem cannot be handled individually. The target of the activities guidance group on the fact of the same individuals, but in the activities of this group of individuals who are parts of a group. According to the guidance function Nurihsan & Joseph (2009:16) is as follows:a. Understanding, help the students to get a better understanding about himself and their environment. Each student are expected to develop their talent and to adapt the condition in the environment.b. Prevention, the counselor effort to prevent any problem.c. Development, counselors always trying to conduct conducive working environment to facilitates the students development.d. Improvement, this guidance function was curative. This function is closely related to encouraging students who have been experiencing problems, such as personal aspect, social, learning and career.e. Distribution, the counselor helps students to choose any activities, including extracurricular, department, and major. f. Adaptation, this guidance functions in helping educational officer, counselor and lecturer, to adapt educational program, such as educational background, student interest, and ability.g. Customization, guidance function in helping students to develop self-adaptation and construct educational program, school’s rule, religion norm. The basic guidance program assumption using number game is as follows:1. The Guidance Program through number game is an efforts to develop student’s imagination activity.2. Number Game is a therapy method using number to encourage counselling to express student’s feeling. 3. Using number game, counselor can facilitate student’s cognitive and affective development. The Guidance Program using number game has its specific counselee. This program is aimed to 9 to 12 years old students. In this age, students are in developing phase, so that they need some cognitive and affective development facilities. Counselor in Guidance program need some general competencies, as follows:
- Good performance
- Smart, creative, innovative, and productive.
- Energic, discipline, and independent
- Respect, empathy, and tolerance.
- Effective communication.
Beside the general competencies, Guidance program counselor need specific competencies, such as effective communication to the children and specific skill in number game, using number operation, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The steps of the guidance program using number game, as follows:1. First Step (Introduction)
On the first 10 minutes, counselor open the session, then explain about the program’s objective, theme and benefit, counselor and participant contribution in guidance program. Besides that, counselor inform about the activity will be done and the instrument will be used in number game guidance program. Then, counselor open the question session to make clear what participant have to do in the guidance program. The last in first step is preparing material for number game.
2. Second Step (Main Step)This step is done in 35 minutes. Counselor, as a facilitator, explain about the number game rule. The participant do the game starts from the first step until the last step appropriate with the game theme. They will do the rule to operate the number. Children are expected to explore their imagination and their creativity in number by the game. 3. Third Step (Last Step)
This step is done in 15 minutes. In this step, counselee discuss about the game has been done. Participant express their opinion about the process and the achievement in the number game to reflect the mean of the game.
The guidance program can be done individually or in group based on the counselling problem. The successful indicator of the guidance program can be known from the behavior changes of the counselee, where the counselee show better changes and they can actualize their performance.
Number game is a guidance technique by operating number in mathematical number operation, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and addition. This game is often used in child guidance and counseling technique. It can facilitate children cognitive and affective development, especially to solve mathematical problem.
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|Aniek Wirastania is a lecturer of guidance and counselling department, University of Adi Buana Surabaya. She received his master degree under UPI Bandung Indonesia. Her major interest cover teaching rehabilitation counselling and counselling program for children.
|Hanim Faizah is a lecturer in mathematics education department of Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya. Hanim was born in Sidoarjo on 29th of May 1988. Hanim was graduated from Universitas Negeri Surabaya on 2010, where she received a Bachelor Degree in mathematics. Hanim was also graduated her Master Degree in mathematics education from Universitas Negeri Surabaya on 2014.|