ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya
29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3
Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya

Penulis  : Ayong Lianawati



               Self-esteem is one of the personality elements which are very important in influencing the quality of the individual’s social and psychology. Self-esteem is defined as an individual evaluation of his or herself, which is partly the evaluation, comes from individual interaction with the environment as well as on the amount of the award, acceptance and attention of another person receives. 

There are various factors behind the formation of self-esteem, such as parenting, peer pressure, sex, mindset, past experience, social status, achievement, and the high value of self-esteem which will influence on a success and well-being such as social relationship, work, and health. On the contrary, a low self-esteem will bring out various issues intrapersonal beliefs. The development of self-esteem occurs in fluctuated process in line with the rate of development. The development of self-esteem adolescence is not growing rapidly as childhood and adult. An increased self-esteem in adolescents can basically be done by a variety of techniques. One of the techniques which can be used is the self-instruction technique. Self-instruction is a technique which can be used to help counselee in giving evaluation (not adaptive) toward his or her self replaced with the more adaptive statement.

Keyword: Self-Instruction, Self-EsteemAdolescence



Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adulthood. The period is marked by a change in the biological aspect, cognitive and socio-emotional (Yusuf and Sugandi, 2011). As a result of the growth of the physical and social environment, adolescents are often experiencing self-tremendous pressure, it is because the widespread social and mobility area. The more expansion of mobility in adolescence, the more attention specially this period needs.

Adolescence is known by the time of storm and stress. Many teens who have not been able to go beyond the pressures well. If in adolescence people have confidence and a positive view of their capabilities, it is possible for them to be able to enter adulthood well. A good adulthood is generally characterized by an independent attitude, happiness and success in social adjustment. On the contrary, if the individual judging him negatively as it felt itself unable, anxious, pessimistic about the future it could be possible to exceed people fail to undergo the stresses of life demands.

Cavanagh and Levitov (2002) classify three psychological dimensions that became the driving force in carrying out the demands of life, the need fulfillment, competencies intrapersonal, and interpersonal competencies. If from these three things, there are aspects that have not been met then it is possible there will be problems in the future life. Problems that arise in the individual is the externalization of self. In line with the development of the individual, sometimes teenagers behave quite right that eventually emerged attitude is not like themselves. Do not like or accept yourself is one of the indicators of low self-esteem

Adolescence is a period that often experience low self-esteem problems. In line with this, Erol, Ruth Yasemin., And Ulrich Orth (2011) state self-esteem in adolescence have increased more slowly than the previous developmental age, so it is possible to experience low self-esteem problems. Low self-esteem causes people to feel inferior, incompetent, unloved, neglected, unimportant and uninteresting. Low self-esteem can be also because of the failure of individuals to communicate the depth of their intrapersonal.

Due to the importance of self-esteem in influencing the quality of the life in the future, then ideally the individual has a high self-esteem. Orth and Robins (2014) state that high self-esteem are able to support people in achieving success and prosperity in life domains such as social relationships, employment, and health. In addition, Potter (2002) states that individuals with high self-esteem tend to have stable emotions, conscientious, fun, and open to share their experiences with others. Increased self-esteem in adolescents can occur if they are willing and able to overcome their problems, and not avoid it (Lazarus in Santrock, 2007). Facing the problem realistically, honest and not defensive can produce a positive self-evaluation so that the impact on the increasing self-esteem.

To optimize the development of self-esteem in students require the assistance of the implementing guidance and counseling in schools. Signs of self-development to high school (2008), stating Guidance and Counseling is an integral part of the overall education program in schools. The rationale and urgency of the implementation of guidance and counseling in schools is not solely lie in the presence or absence of a formal, but more important is regarding the fulfillment of the real needs of students will help psikopedagogis be able to develop his or her potential and achieve the developmental tasks optimally concerning aspects of the physical, emotional, intellectual, social and moral-spiritual.

Attempts to do the teacher guidance and counseling to optimize the development of students’ self-esteem is through a variety of approaches. One of them through cognitive behavior therapy approach. This approach aims to amend errors or deviations in the mind (Davidson, 1990). There are a variety of techniques in cognitive behavior approach, among others, self-instruction, problem solving and cognitive restructuring.

Technique self-instruction is an effort to teach people about how your own capability to handle the difficult situation that happened effectively (Sharf, 2004). Technique of self-instruction assumed effective way to improve students’ self-esteem because it has several advantages, these advantages are Antala can replace the negative views of individuals believed to be positive, as well as directing people to be able to change his condition to obtain more effective than the environmental consequences. This technique aims to reconstruct patterns of cognition, assumptions and beliefs and judgments destructive and self-blame. Based on the above explanation the question arises whether the technique of self-instruction is effective to improve students’ self-esteem?



Self-esteem is an evaluation of the individual against himself, to be maintained as well as the most votes against him comes from individual interaction with the environment and the amount of the award, acceptance and attention of others who receive it (Coopersmith, 1967). Self-esteem is one of the elements of personality which is very important in influencing the social and psychological qualities of the individual. One reason to understand the importance of self-esteem is to help individuals learn things related to themselves as a unique human being.

There are still many limitations in understanding the overall meaning. Self-esteem are understood as introspection and observation of others against themselves. Because admittedly difficult to be disclosed, then there is a simple way that can be done to understand the self-esteem that is by asking questions to yourself and others as an evaluator (Mruk, 2006). Questions can be submitted covering how individuals interpret the fate suffered in his life and behavior ?, how individuals can understand the purpose of life in both the short and long term ?, how the individual’s relationship with the social environment ?, and how the pace of life she lived?

A famous psychologist, Branden (1992) in his book entitled The Power Of Self-Esteem argued that self-esteem is one of the most important keys in the motivation to achieve success. Similar statements expressed Waitley (1997) that the self-esteem of the individual will contribute to the achievement of objectives in academic success, career and personal happiness.

Every individual has the dimensions of self-esteem are different from each other. To assess the dimensions of self-esteem depends on the extent and rate individual considers himself worthy. Each level of self-esteem has certain characteristics externalized in attitude and character. Coopersmith (1967) classify the characteristics of high self-esteem and low self-esteem as follows.


Table 1

Characteristics of High Self-Esteem and Self-Esteem Low

(Coopersmith, 1967)

No Self-Esteem Tinggi Self-Esteem Rendah
1 Have the ability to control or influence others Easily influenced by others


2 Abiding by norms prevailing in society Feeling isolated and not accepted others
3 Successful in achieving the desired Felt unable to face the challenges
4 Confidence Not confident
5 Are you sure you can solve the problems faced Not able to solve their own problems
6 Being able to assess the ability of the Not able to assess her abilities
7 Optimistic able to make adjustments Pessimists in adjustment
8 Participate well in their environment Not being able to participate properly in the environment
9 Gained recognition and respect from others Feel alienated because of her conviction unloved
10 Able to receive positive feedback and appreciation of the environment Sensitive to criticism
11 Confidence in the ability Easily controlled by someone else
12 Establish positive relationships with others Establish a negative relationship with others
13 Easy to make friends isolate yourself
14 Has a lot of expectations to be realized Fear of failure in achieving the expectations
15 Not easily discouraged Easy to despair.


Related to the above, ideally the individual has a high self-esteem to be able to succeed in life. Given the self-esteem has important consequences in the real world, the development of self-esteem needs to get special attention because of the development, not all individuals have a high self-esteem.

Low self-esteem will bring up various issues intrapersonal. According to Surya (2009) The following are the problems that arise when individuals in the category of self-esteem is low (1) perceiving themselves with no respect and love, (2) neglect ourselves though not hate yourself, but often expect others to give award against him, (3) shows the behavior in an attempt to fill dignity lost to shape the behavior of a synthetic, (4) beridentifikasi excess on certain roles, (5) did not let other people familiar psychologically with him, (6) the behavior that is constantly changing in choosing friends and business partners, (7) not being able to forgive ourselves, (8) finds himself in negative ways.

If allowed to drag on low self-esteem issues will have an impact on individual psychological, such as depression and anxiety. This is consistent with the results of research Sawislo and Ulrich (2013) which prove that there is a link between self-esteem to depression and anxiety. Another issue that will arise because of low self-esteem is the social rejection. Leary, Mark R. (2010) in his research stating that the self-esteem develops as a monitor in social acceptance and self-esteem that can prevent the occurrence of social rejection.

The development of self-esteem in adolescence influenced by interpersonal problems. That is because the optimal capability in understanding adolescent self-growing flower. Erikson (in Santrock, 2007) suggests that individuals in adolescence confronted with many questions about themselves, who they are, how they are the future and what the purpose of their lives. All these questions lead to the formation of the self perception. Perception involves aspects of cognition that forms a self-assessment against. When an individual is able to perceive themselves in a positive way, it will be created a sense of comfortable and happy in her life that usually manifests itself as self-confidence, fun, easy to get along and are emotionally stable. Conversely, if the individual mempersepkan itself negatively characterized by feelings of worthlessness, self-esteem, feel isolated and difficult to get along with the environment, it forms a low self-esteem.

The development of self-esteem in adolescents is influenced by external and internal factors. External factors include parenting, peer pressure, the achievements of past experience, social status, while the internal factors include mindset, gender, as well as the value of the beliefs held. Irawati and Hajat (2012) in his research proves that there is a significant positive ties between self-esteem and academic achievement of students.

According to Coopersmith (1967) there are four aspects that can be used as benchmarks to assess and appreciate him the power aspect, Significance, virtue and competence. Aspects of force leads to an individual’s ability to be able to regulate and control the behavior and its role in influencing others. In addition, the power is characterized by the recognition and respect that individual received from others. Significance shown with the care, attention and affection received from others. Expression of appreciation, interest and acceptance of others as a form of acceptance and popularity of the social environment. Aspects of virtue demonstrate their adherence to the standards of moral, ethical and religious principles that must be executed. Virtue is marked by obedience to avoid behavior that should be avoided and the running behavior allowed by moral, ethical and religious prinsi. Aspects of competence is the ability of individuals to achieve a good performance, in accordance with the age and stage of development.

Cognitive behavior therapy approach developed by Donald Meinchenbaum has several techniques, one of which is self-instruction. Technique of self-instruction is an effort to teach people about how your own capability to handle the difficult situation that happened effectively (Sharf, 2004).

In the implementation, Meichenbaum (in Corey, 2009) classifies three stages in implementing the technique of self-instruction, namely (1) the observation of self, (2) initiating an internal dialogue and (3) learn new skills. Observations made at the beginning of the intervention themselves by asking people to listen to the internal dialogue within themselves and recognize the characteristics of negative statements he had in mind. Start an internal dialogue is performed to identify maladaptive behavior, people began to look for alternative menggembangkan opportunity adaptive behavior by changing the internal dialogue within himself. With internal dialogue is expected to individuals capable of producing new behavior that impact on the structure of cognition. Learning new skills requires individuals to begin to learn the techniques to overcome problems that can be applied in everyday life. At the same time, individuals are expected to remain focused on the task of making a new statement and observing the difference in behavior.

By teaching self-instruction techniques well as preventive and curative efforts were made through a structured training or information services, individuals are expected to be able to apply themselves in order to improve self-esteem. Through the technique of self-instruction of individuals trained in order to change the negative view that is believed to be a positive outlook. In addition individuals are required to be more independent through that difficult period faced. Individuals who see themselves negatively as not confident, feeling himself unworthy and isolate themselves are a manifestation of the lack of proper mindset. Negative assumptions against self into these beliefs must be changed by way of practice to be able to think more positively in order to affect the increase.



Self-esteem is an evaluation of the individual against himself, to be maintained as well as the most votes against him comes from individual interaction with the environment and the amount of the award, acceptance and attention of others who receive it (Coopersmith, 1967). The development of self-esteem occurs fluctuated throughout the life span along with the development. Masa who often experience problems of low self-esteem is in adolescence.

In adolescence the individual faced a lot of questions about themselves, who they are, how they are the future and what the purpose of their lives. All these questions lead to the formation of the self perception. Perception involves aspects of cognition that forms a self-assessment against. If the individual is not able to assess themselves in a positive way, it will cause low self-esteem. Low self-esteem causes people to feel inferior, incompetent, unloved, neglected, unimportant and uninteresting.

Technique of self-instruction allows the individual to have the skills to restructure the pattern of negative cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and judgments destructive and self-blame. In particular technique of self-instruction not only focus on the mindset of the individual alone but behaviors that may appear after applying the technique of self-instruction. Thus, the technique of self-instruction possible to help people in improving self-esteem.



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Ayong Lianawati  is a lecturer of Guidance and Counseling Department, University of Adi Buana Surabaya. She is certified of hypnotherapy. She received her master degree in university education of Indonesia, Bandung, West Java.