INCLUSIVE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AS EDUCATION SERVICE FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
ICETA 8 || 8th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Surabaya 29 Oktober 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-98-3 Penerbit : University of PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis : Dian Puspa Dewi
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Early childhood with special needs is a group of children aged from birth to age 6 who have special needs that must be served. Special needs children are possessed by a child’s inability to optimize the ability of physical, emotional, social, language, etc. that require special services in accordance with the child’s condition. One is educational services for Early childhood with special needs equal with their peers. Educational services for young children with special needs do not have to always be in the Special Needs School.
But it can also be given in regular schools with Inclusive Educational System. Inclusive Educational System is the education system that accommodates children with special needs with their peers at regular schools. Early childhood with special needs education outcomes are comparable with their peers. Educational services for early children with special needs in early childhood Inclusion aims to increase access to early childhood services for children with special needs.
Key words: Inclusive Educational System, education Service, Early Childhood with Special Needs
Getting a proper education is the right of every citizen of Indonesia, including early childhood education. Early childhood is a group of children aged from birth to 6 years. Early childhood is a group of children who are in the process of growth and development that is unique. Sujiono (2013) explains further that early childhood is a unique individual, where he has a pattern of growth and development in the physical, cognitive, socio-emotional, creativity, language and communication that is specially according to the stages that are passed by the the child.
Early Childhood Education basically does not be compulsory to be taken, but rather suggestions (Santoso, 2008). If people are aware of the benefits of early childhood education for the especially golden age there can be maximized so that children growing up to be an amazing individual, society certainly be chosen to provide education for their children from an early age. Undang-Undang Number 20 Year 2003 about National Education System Section 28 paragraph 1 explains education for early childhood is education which held for children from birth up to the age of six years and is not a prerequisite participate in primary education.
Early childhood with limitations on aspects of development (cognitive, physical and motor, language, social, emotional, moral values) are also entitled to the same education with their peers. Early childhood with special needs is a group of children aged from birth to 6 years who have limitations and constraints on development aspects that require specialized services. Special services are given according to the conditions and needs of children. It aims to the early childhood with special needs get the same service as their peers, including educational services.
Educational services for the early childhood with special needs not only given in the Special School. But, as the development in the early childhood education with special needs can acquire early childhood education services in the regular system of inclusive education or inclusion early childhood education. Inclusion Early childhood education is a school that unify the early childhood with special needs with their peers in same school and get same educational services with their peers. Educational services for the early childhood with special needs in Inclusion early childhood education aims to increase access to early childhood services for children with special needs.
The purpose of this study was to examine through some literature and the condition in the field of Inclusive Educational System as educational services for early childhood with special needs.
- Early Childhood with Special Needs
Early childhood has a meaning individuals who have a rapid development and fundamental to the next age. NAEYC (National Association for the Education Young Chlidren) in Santoso (2008) interpret early childhood is children who are at the age from birth to eight years. Law Undang-Undang Number 20 Year 2003 about National Education System Section 28 paragraph 1 explains education for early childhood is education which held for children from birth up to the age of six years. So it can be seen that early childhood according to the National Education System is a group of children aged from birth to six years.
Sujiono (2013) explains further that early childhood is a unique individual, where he has a pattern of growth and development in the physical, cognitive, socio-emotional, creativity, language and communication that is specially according to the stages that are passed by the the child.
In addition, in this period of early childhood experienced a golden age. At this time nearly all potential child has sensitive period to grow and develop fast and furious. Suyadi (2014) described the findings of neuroscience shows that the brain child when the child is born brain cells reached 100 billion have not interconnected but a little. When a child enters the age of 3 years, brain cells has established 1,000 trillion connections / synapses. This is 2 times more than that of adults. Efforts to achieve the optimal development of these connections should be reinforced through a variety of stimulation or stimulation because connections is seldom used will die, while frequently used will be stronger and permanent.
Smith (2006) explains that the influence of the most striking and can leave a long impression made at the right time, which is during the critical or sensitive period. So that at the critical period of early childhood services should be given appropriate stimulation in accordance with the stages of his age. Stimulation given to aspects of child development is the development of cognitive, physical and motor development, language development, emotional social development, development of moral and religious values, and development of art. In order for children to develop optimally, then stimulation should be given gradually and continuously. Delay or ignoring giving stimulus at the right time will have negative impacts on child development. This will cause developmental delays in children.
WHO (2012:12) explain that developmental delay refers to children who experience significant variation in the achievement of expected milestones for their actual or adjusted age. Developmental delays are caused by poor birth outcomes, inadequate stimulation, malnutrition, chronic ill health and other organic problems, psychological and familial situations, or other environmental factors. While developmental delay may not be permanent, it can provide a basis for identifying children who may experience a disability.
Early childhood with special needs is a group of children aged from birth to 6 years old who have barriers to the development aspect. Early childhood with special needs have characterized the impairment on visual, hearing, cognitive, physical, social, emotional, behavioral and language. So that the necessary special services to help children meet their needs according with the impairment owned. One is education that must getting by all early childhood with special needs.
Institutions in Early Childhood Education (LPAUD) which is kindergarten, playgroup, daycare, early childhood education such other are always children who need special attention. There are psychosocial behavioral problems, learning disabilities, or children with concentration of attention disorders / hyperactivity, Jamaris (2006: 80-92) and Mulyono (2006: 6-9). Children with autism, Kanner in Jamaris (2006: 85).
- Inclusive Educational System
Nasichin (2001) describes that Inclusive education is education that is included children with special needs to learn together with peers in reguler schools, and finally they are part of the community of the school, so as to create an atmosphere of learning conducive.
Stainback and stainback in Widyastono (2004) describes definition of inclusive education is a school accommodating all students in the same class. This school provides education programs eligible, challenging, but according to the abilities and needs of each student as well as the help and support that can be given by teachers so that children succeed. More than that, an inclusive school where every child can be accepted, to be part of that class, and help each other with teachers and peers, and other community members so that their individual needs fulfilled.
Staub and Peck explained that inclusive education is the placement of children with disabilities mild, moderate and severe in full in the regular classroom. This shows that the inclusion class is appropriate classes for children with special needs of any kind of disability and however gradation (Widyastono: 2004).
UNESCO in Girma Haunted (2011) describes definition of inclusion is the fundamental principle of the inclusive school is that all children should learn together, wherever possible, regardless of any difficulties or differences they may have. Inclusive schools must recognize and respond to the diverse needs of their students, accommodating both different styles and rates of learning and ensuring quality education to all through appropriate curricula, organizational arrangements, teaching strategies, resource use and partnerships with their communities.
Inclusive education is an educational approach that is innovative and strategic to expanding education acess for all students, including children with special needs. In a a broader context, inclusive education can also be interpreted as a one form of education reform that emphasizes anti-discrimination, the struggle for equal rights and opportunities, fairness, and expanding education access for all, improving the quality of education, a strategic effort to complete the compulsory education 9 years, and efforts to change public attitudes towards children with special needs.
- The foundation of the implementation of inclusive education
Directorate PKK-LK (2011) describes the implementation of inclusive education has a philosophical foundation, juridical, pedagogical and empirical as below,
- Philosophical foundation
The main philosophical foundation in implementation of inclusive education in Indonesia Pancasila which is five pillars at the same ideals that established the foundations of a more fundamental, called Unity in Diversity (Bhineka Tunggal Ika).
This philosophy as a form of recognition of human diversity consists of the vertical and horizontal diversity that a single mission as God’s people on earth. Based on the philosophy of national unity, and the disablity is only the one form of diversity as well as language, culture or religion. Within the individual disabilities must include certain advantages, otherwise in the individual normal children certainly there is also specific disability. Since all human beings no one is perfect.
- Juridical foundation
International juridical foundation the implementation of inclusive education is the Salamanca declaration by the ministers of education worldwide. This declaration is actually reaffirmation on UN declaration about Human Rights in 1948 and continued declarations that led to the 1993 UN standard rules about same oppurtunity for individuals with disabilities get education as the integral of the the education system. Salamnca declaration emphasizes that during possible all children should learn together regardless of any difficulties or differences they may have on them.
- Pedagogical foundation
Section 3 of Indonesian Law No. 20 in 2003 explain that the objective of national education is the development of students’ potentials to become a man of faith and fear of God, noble, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsibility. So, through education, childrens with special needs formed into citizens of a democratic and responsible individuals who are able to appreciate the differences and to participate in a community. This goal is impossible to achieve if at first they were isolated of the their peers in special schools. However little they should be given the opportunity together with peers
- Empirical foundation
Research about inclusive has been widely practiced in western countries since the 1980s. Large-scale study was pioneered by the National Academy of Science (USA). The result showed that the classification and placement of children with special needs in schools, classrooms, or a special place to be ineffective and discriminatory. This study recommends that special education is only given limited segregated based on the proper identification, which truly can determine children with special needs are relatively heavy. However, some experts argued very difficult to do accurately identify children with special needs, because their characteristics are very heterogeneous.
Characteristics of Inclusive Education
One of the most important characteristics of the inclusive school is one community that is cohesive, accepting and responsive to the individual needs of each student. To that end, Sapon-Shevin offers five profiles of learning in an inclusive school.
- Inclusive education means creating and maintaining a warm classroom community, accept diversity, and respect for diversity. Teachers have the responsibility of creating a classroom atmosphere that accommodates all children in full with emphasis the atmosphere and social behavior that respects differences concerning the ability, physical condition, socio-economic, ethnic, religious, etc.
- Inclusive education means that multilevel curriculum implementation and multimodality. Teach classes that are made of heterogeneous require fundamental changes in the curriculum. Teachers in inclusive classes consistently will shift from a rigid learning, based on the textbook, or basal material to learning involve cooperative learning, thematic, critical thinking, problem solving, and assessment authentically
- Inclusive education means to prepare and encourage teachers to teach interactively. Changes in the curriculum is closely related to changes in teaching methods. Model of traditional classroom where a teacher is alone struggling to serviced the needs of all children in the class should be replaced with a model students work together, teach each other, and actively participate in their own education and the education of his friends. The relation between cooperative learning and inclusive classroom is now clear; all the children were in one class is not to compete, but to learn from each other.
- Inclusive education means providing encouragement for teachers and class continuously and the removal of impairment relating to professional isolation. Although the teacher is always surrounded by other people, a job teaching profession can be isolated. The most important aspect of inclusive education includes teaching team, collaboration and consultation, and some way of measuring the skills, knowledge, and help individuals who served to educate a group of children. Teamwork between teachers and other professions are required, such as professionals, language and speech therapyst, cuonselors, etc. Although to be able to cooperate with others either require training and encouragement, the desired cooperation turned out to be realized.
- Inclusive education means involving parents meaningfully in the planning process. Inclusive education is very depend on the input of parents in their children’s education, for example, their involvement in the preparation of Individualized Educational Program (Sunardi.2011: 7-8)
Inclusive classrooms to accommodate children who heterogeneous, be handled by expert of various professions as a team, so that each child’s individual needs can be fulfilled. This of course demands a lot of changes to the conventional learning system as used in Indonesia right now.
- Inclusive Educational System as educational services for the Early Childhood Special Needs
Early childhood with special needs that have been identified ease giving appropriate services for children, one of which is education services. Early childhood with special needs not only in Special School . Society Paradigm of children who attend special schools, causing parents finally feel inferior to send their children to special schools. So many cases of parents who have early children with special needs , prefer not to send their children. As a result, early childhood with special needs do not get a good education service.
According with the development of education for early children with special needs for more than a decade, schools with Inclusive Educational System or the alternative is present as a alternative so that children can attend regular schools. So parents who feel inferior to with their conditions, can send their children to the school inclusion.
Education for Early Childhood with Special Needs aims for all children aged 2-6 years have the opportunity to grow and develop optimally in accordance with its potential, and in accordance with the stages of development or age level. Besides early childhood education Inclusion is preparing to enroll in the School DasarInklusi Inclusion. Inclusion of early childhood education conducted through formal paths in kindergarten inclusion and non-formal educational path in the form of playgroup , and Daycare.
During the period of the development of an Inclusive Educational System in Indonesia is still not a lot of schools that touches Early Childhood Education. As explained by Nuraeni 2014), Indonesia has been conducting inclusive education, starting from elementary education up to the top level high school). But Inclusive Educational System should be implemented also on the level of early childhood education.
This is related to the importance of stimulation in children from an early age. Smith (2006) explains that the influence of the most striking and can leave a long impression made at the right time, which is during the critical or sensitive period. If early child has been identified to have delayed development even has special needs, then stimulation from an early age will help children grow into better child development. This can be facilitated by the inclusion of early childhood education.
Implementation of inclusion as a form of early childhood education services for early childhood with special needs should consider a lot of things for children to be served well. Aspects to be considered include the curriculum, teaching, infrastructure and readiness of educators.
Curriculum for children with special needs in early childhood Inclusive
Based guidelines the implemntation of inclusive education by Directorate PKK -LK (2011) described an alternate type / model of inclusive school curriculum is divided into two, which is:
- Academic Curriculum
Academic curriculum early childhood with special needs are described as follows:
|No||Type of Curriculum||Students|
|1||National Standard Curriculum||Regular students and students with special needs has average intelligence|
|2||Accommodative Curriculum below the national standard||students with special needs who below average intelligence|
|3||Accommodative Curriculum above the national standard||Students with special needs has above average gifted an talented|
Accomodative Curriculum a curriculum aligned with the talents and interests of children with special needs. implementation of curriculum using a model curriculum alignment with the form:
- Escalation Model, is National standard Curriculum level increases and expanded the material qualification in accoradance by students with gifted and talented
- Duplication model , implementationthe national standard curriculum to children with special needsis the samewith their peers
- Modification models is changed subtanasial of national standar curriculum for aligned with children’s ability
- Subtitution model is changed subtanasial of national standar curriculum with the other material because aligned with children’s ability
- Omition model is removed part / whole national substantial of National Standard curriculum because it imposibble given to children with special needs
- Accomodative Curriculum Specificity
The curriculum is specifically related to interference as a form of service to children with special needs based on specific needs to optimize the potential that can be developed. Specificity the form of services such as:
- Orientation Mobility
- Speech Therapy
- Modification behavior.
Model of Learning Implemetation
Classroom management and learning activities in schools inclusive by Directorate PKK -LK (2011) carried out as follows:
- Classroom management
- Full Regular Class
The students with special needs learn together with their peers in the same class,
- Regular Class with shadows Teacher
The students with special needs learn together with their peers, but students with special needs get special service of special shadow Teachers
- Special class in regular school
Its implementation is separating students with special needs in a class from a regular students. However, in certain learning activities they are included in the regular classroom
- Learning activity
The learning activity is the classroom teacher and shadow teachers prepared learning for childrens with special needs. One of them is to prepare the Draft Educational Program for early children with special needs can follow their peers. It also should be prepared Individualized Educational Program (IEP) for early children with special needs who can not follow the classical learning design. Both the Draft Educational Program and IEP consists learning objectives, indicators of material reached, instructional methods, instructional media, the material to be taught, learning resources are used, evaluation.
Facilities and infrastructure
Facilities and infrastructure in inclusive schools the same as regular schools, but given the diversity of students infrastructure needs to include accessibility in order to help early children with special needs in mobility.
Generally educators for early children with special needs is same with regular students. But there are additional academic staff who have educational backgrounds is special education who have competence in making lesson planning, implementation and evaluation of learning in children with special needs. All teachers need to coordinate with each other to provide appropriate services for children.
Benefits of Inclusive Educational System as education services for early childhood with special needs
The implementation of an Inclusive Educational System at the institution as a form of early childhood education services for early childhood with special needs have benefits for some parties. Benefits can be used as motivation in the implementation of the inclusion of early childhood in Indonesia. Nuraeni (2014) describes some of these benefits include:
- Benefits for all students
- For children who do not have impairment will add insight that in their community there are some individuals who have multiple impairment
- After they know it can cause effects further understanding and acceptance early
- For the early children with special needs will not feel that they are different from other childrens
- Increase the confidence of children who have special needs.
- Benefits for educators
- Teachers getting knowledge and new experiences that very useful for them
- Finding methods manipulative and creative in teaching
- Grow a commitment to ethics and responsibility of teaching
- Benefits for parents
- The benefits for parents with children with special needs is able to increase their confidence because his children was not a “disease” that needed to be ignored but can participate with their comunity.
- Benefits for parents is in order to develop empathy, respect and acceptance of the children with special needs and their families.
- Benefits for the community
The cummunity, generally will open his understanding that the children with special needs is not children who should be isolated and ignored, children with special needs can participated with their peers because they such the others also are humans who of course have the same rights. Openness public understanding can be built through their inclusive schools, especially when starting from early childhood level.
Early childhood with special needs is a group of children aged from birth to 6 years old who have impairments to the development aspect. Early childhood with special needs have characterized the impairments at visuals, hearing, cognitive, physical, social, emotional, behavioral and language. So that the necessary special services to help children fulfill their needs in accordance with impairment owned. One is education services that must fulfilled by all early childhood with special needs.
In addition to the Special School for Early childhood with special needs can attend regular schools with an Inclusive Educational System. School with inclusive educational system in early childhood education level is a school that brings together children with special needs to learn the same things in the same place with their peers. In the implementation of inclusive education at the early childhood level there are several things to consider, among other things: Curriculum, Education, Infrastructure, academic staff, etc.
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|Dian Puspa Dewi, S.Pd, M.Pd is a lecturer at the Strata Levels of Teacher Education- Early Childhood Education PGRI Adi Buana University of Surabaya. She graduated strata levels in Special Education at the Sebelas Maret University of Surakarta. And she graduated master levels of Special Education at the State University of Surabaya. She is interested in discussing research on early children with special needs. The author can be contacted via email at firstname.lastname@example.org|