THE KNOWLEDGE OF PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND THERAPISTS ABOUT THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ASD
ICETA 7 || 7th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Conference Proceedings || 13 Maret 2016 || ISBN: 978-979-3870-50-2 Penerbit : Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis : Muchamad Irvan
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are those that have complex mental development disorder. Children with ASD called have complex mental development disorder caused have failures in three developmental aspects that is the ability of social interaction, social communication and behavior (restricted and repetitive).
And thus require special and intensive handling from various parties. The parties which are crucial to provide treatment for children with ASD are parents, teachers, therapists, and physicians. This research investigate examines the knowledge of parents, teachers, and therapists about the treatment of children with ASD. Subject and object of the research are four parents, two SLB teachers, two inclusive teachers, and two therapists. This research was conducted in Sidoarjo. The research design used in this research is descriptive with qualitative approach. Data collection techniques used were observation, interview, and documentation. Based on interview showed that whole subject is made up of four parents, two SLB teachers, two inclusive teachers, and two therapists did not know what is autism spectrum disorder and services that should be provided to handle it. From the results concluded that the knowledge of parents, teachers, and therapists of children with ASD and its handling is still lacking. Such problems can arise due to a lack of socialization and specialized training for those who act to provide treatment to children with ASD.
Keywords: Parents, Teachers, Therapists, Autism Spectrum Disorder
In this last decade the children number with autism in the world is increasing. Based on statistics from UNESCO shows that in 2011 people with autism in the world reached 35 million people, while in Indonesia based on BPS data in 2010 reached approximately 112,000 inhabitants (Republika, 2013)
American Psychiatric Association (DSM V: 2013) described ASD into four classifications, namely Autistic Disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and PDD-NOS (Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified). Where the four classifications are part of pervasive disorder umbrella. Koray (2011), pervasive disorders or can be called with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) is a disorder or abnormality in a person, characterized by no development of the social and communication abilities accompanied by repetitive and restricted behavior (interest disorder). ASD is a psychiatric disorder that appeared at early age, characterized by the no development of social and communication skills and social interaction and accompanied by restricted and repetitive behavior symptoms (DSM V: 2013).
The rapid growth of globalization does not just affect the education for normal children, but also the education for children with special needs. Exceptional education experts have been able to classify children with special needs by distractions and barriers experienced, either physical, psychological, and social. The development of educational services, seminars and socialization currently raise parent’s awareness of the handling importance of autistic children in early age, both medically and non-medically. It also increases the number of service providers for children with autism. thus increasing understanding of parents and community about autism and the needs of autism services early. But the understanding of parents, therapists, and teachers at school do not understand about the classification of autism according to the symptoms (Asmika, et al: 2006).
Providing treatment to children with ASD needs important role of parents, therapists and doctors. In this case the doctor is the source of first information when parents found developmental delays in children. So the doctors have an important role in guiding parents in providing services to children with ASD. Therapist plays an important role in treatment of children with ASD. In this case the therapist role to compile the individual program or exercise program that will be applied and adapted to the children needs. While parents participate to implement individualized program that has been designed by the therapist. For in implementing individual exercise programs in children with ASD need routines and continuity.
Asmika (2006) added that parents, teachers, therapists and doctors need to up date their knowledge related to children with ASD. Because, various experts continue to conduct research in defining the term autism and treatment methods. This is done in order to develop strategies and methods in training child with ASD. So with knowledge of ASD, all parties play an important role in providing services to children with ASD can contribute best suitable with needs of children with ASD. In relation with the problems, it is necessary to do research about the knowledge of parents, teachers, and therapists about ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder).
Issues to be studied by the researchers is a problem that social and dynamic in nature. Therefore, the researchers chose to use qualitative research methods to determine how to find, collect, process and analyze data from the research. Qualitative research according to Moleong (2007: 6) is research that aims to understand the phenomenon of what is experienced by the subject of study such behavior , perception, motivation, action, holistically and by way of description in words and language, in a natural specific context and by utilizing various natural methods.
In this study, research subjects are the parties who play important role in the treatment of children with ASD in Sidoarjo that are parents of 4 persons, 2 inclusive school teachers, 2 SLB teachers, and 2 therapist. The research object, namely knowledge of parents, teachers, and therapists about Children with ASD and their handling. Data collection techniques used in this study were observation, documentation, and interviews. The data analysis was done by creating interview transcript. Furthermore, the interview transcript is reduced and shaped become abstraction so that research results can produce study conclusion.
FINDINGS and DISCUSSION
Based on the theoretical study, answer description of instrument interview can be described as follows:
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a psychiatric disorder in a person who appears at an early age, characterized by no development of social communication and social interaction skills coupled with restricted and repetitive behavior. ASD is not a disease that affects children and can not be cured (DSM V: 2013). ASD is a disorder that is not curable, but autistic behavior can be mitigated by intensive handling from various parties such as parents, teachers, and therapists.
Children with ASD have difficulty in undergoing the daily activities due to have a developmental disorder of social interaction and communication skills. In general, children with ASD also accompanied with sensory integration disorder. The existence of several disorders that cause the appearance of repetitive behavior (and disorders of interest. Children with ASD so-called spectrum disorder based on the complex disorder and mutual continuity.
Among the community develops myths and beliefs that have not been proven and not based on the results of research. The myths include: 1) ASD caused by immunization; 2) ASD caused by upbringing mistake; 3) ASD can be cured with the help of medication and therapies specifically; 4) ASD can be cured with the help of a nutritious diet. Based on the research results conducted by experts showed that the drugs do not eliminate autistic behavior in children with ASD. Application of nutrition diet affects only children who impaired in the processing of nutrients at brain that is produced by digestion in the stomach.
In providing the treatment to children with ASD require various services and cooperation from several parties such as parents, teachers, and therapists. The required services are 1) occupational therapy to provide handling behavior modification; 2) speech therapy is needed to develop communication skills; 3) Sensory integration therapy is required for the handling of sensory integration disorder; 4) academic learning and remedial therapy is required to deliver instructional services that are tailored to the capabilities and needs of children with ASD. As for those services required important role of parents to cooperate in providing intensive handling through consultation and implementation of the home program given by experts.
While based on the description of interview results on the implementation of this research can be concluded that the parties that were important in providing treatment to children with ASD have less knowledge related to children with ASD and handling services. The conclusions from the analysis of the interview as follows:
Based on the interviews results conducted, it can be concluded that from the four parents showed lack knowledge about children with ASD and handling services. Parents showed his ignorance about what is meant by Autism Spectrum Disorder, disorder experienced by children with ASD, and characteristics that appear as symptoms of autistic behavior. Basically parents undergo a series of activities of different therapies. The big difference in the service given because parents follow the advices of the local community.
- SLB teachers
Based on interviews with two SLB teachers, that both subjects showed his ignorance about what is meant by Autism Spectrum Disorder, disorder experienced by children with ASD, and characteristics that appear as symptoms of autistic behavior. Both SLB teachers only teach the subject matter that is tailored to their academic abilities without analyzing the needs and characteristics of children. So that in this case both SLB teachers did not cooperate actively with parents in providing the learning tailored to the needs and characteristics of children with ASD.
- Inclusive School Teachers
Based on interviews with two inclusive school teachers, both subjects knew about Autism Spectrum Disorder, but both did not know the specific services that should be provided to handle the disorder in accordance with the characteristics of the children. Learning activities undertaken by teachers is limited to special assistance when students with ASD have difficulty in carrying out non-academic activities at school. As for students with ASD in schools that have intelligence that is equivalent to students in general, so not having problems in carrying out learning activities in the classroom and are able to integrate themselves in the school socialize with friends.
Based on interviews with two therapists, that both subjects showed his ignorance of what is meant by Autism Spectrum Disorder, disorder experienced by children with ASD, and characteristics that appear as symptoms of autistic behavior. The therapy program is tailored to the instructions given psychologist who acts as child consultant and develop therapy programs for children with ASD at the therapy institution.
The given suggestions are 1) It needs special training for teachers and therapists to improve their knowledge and skills in understanding the characteristics of the disorder in children with ASD and the treatment programs; 2) Parents play active role to consult with ASD experts such as doctors, psychologists, and child consultants about the services to provide treatment for children with ASD; 3) The ASD specialists such as doctors, psychologists, and child consultants provide guidance to parents to be able to actively participate and cooperate with teachers and therapists in providing treatment to children with ASD. Learning activities and therapy programs can be applied at home by parents to support the development of the child abilities.
We would like to thank to UNIPA the implementation that has support the implementation of grants research of Adi Buana Surabaya. And also we would like to say thanks to State Exceptional School of Gedangan Sidoarjo, State Vocational School 1 of Sidoarjo and Therapy Service Centre of ESYA Sidoarjo that have cooperated and supported this research.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Research Procedure. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Arlington, VA, 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Washington. American Psychiatric Association.
Asmika, et al. 2006. Relationships of Parents Motivation To Achieve Children Healing with Knowledge Level About Handling Children with Autism and The Spectrum. Journal of Public Health Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine. Brawijaya University. Poor.
Greenspan, Stanely. I. 2006. The Child with Special Needs. United Stade. Da Capo Press.
Handoyo. Y. 2006. Practical Hints And Guidelines For Teaching Normal, Autistic Children And Other Behaviors. Jakarta: Bhuana Ilmu Populer.
Kauffman, Walter. 2013. Symposium: The New Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Department of Neurology Boston childrenâ € ™ s Hospital. Harvard Medical School. Harvard.
Koray, Karabekiroglu. 2011. Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: Specifying and differentiating. International Journal: Ondukuz Mayis University. Turkey.
Moleong, LJ 2007. Qualitative Research Methodology. Bandung: Mandar Maju.
National Institute of Mental Health. 2007. Autism Spectrum Disorder, Pervasive Disorder Develomental. Department of health and Human Services National Institute of Health. US
Notoatmodjo. 2005. Behavioral Health Concepts in Health Promotion. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.
Poerwaka, Hadi. 2005. Behavioral Modification. Jakarta: Ministry of National Education.
Republika. 2013. Holds 112,000 Indonesian Children Are Estimated With Autism. Online: m.Republika.com. accessed on: June 5, 2015.
Rondeau, Emelie. 2010. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable Than Autistic Disorder? A Meta Analysis. Springer Science-Business Media. Canada.
Schreibman, Laura. 2006. Pervasive Developmental Disorder. International Journal: Psychology Department University of California. San Diego. California.
Sugiyono. 2009. Research Methods of Quantitative, Qualitative and R & D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Muchamad Irvan born in Bojonegoro on 15 March 1990. In 2012, she graduated from the Department of Special Education, State University of Surabaya UNESA. She continued her master degree in the same university in 2012 and she graduated from there in 2014. She has range of experiences as a teacher, therapist and consultant of children with special needs especially for children with autism spectrum disorder since 2011. She started to be a special education lecturer in 2015 in University PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya.