Didactic Design to Decrease The Learning Barrier of PGSD Students on Geometric Material
ICETA 7  7th International Conference on Educational Technology of Adi Buana Conference Proceedings  13 Maret 2016  ISBN: 9789793870502 Penerbit : Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya Penulis 1: Via Yustitia Penulis 2: Susi Hermin Rusminati
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Abstract
One of learning problem of PGSD students in the mathematics basic concepts subject, especially in geometry chapter was epistemological problem. Students understand a material only in a certain context, so when they faced to different context it will be a problem. Teaching administrations that used not facilitated lecturers to prepare and anticipate the possibility of varying response of students in learning process. Teaching materials used has not been able to acomodate the variety of questions which can guide students to construct their own knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary a learning plan process as the first step of learning in order to minimize a learning dificulty. Didactic design was the presentation plan of teaching materials. This design was developed from the basic of didactic triangle theory between students, teachers and material that covering Didactic Relations (DR), Pedagogic Relations (PR) and Didactic Anticipation Pedagogical (DAP). Didactic design in this paper was developed based on the characterictic of concepts that will be presented by considering the learning dificultys that identified. This article was the result of literature review. Through this article,the lecturers are expected have a clearer understanding and comprehensive on didactic design so that can reduce the dificultys learning of PGSD students on geomtery chapter.
Keywords: didactic design, the obstacles learn geometry
 Introduction
Geometry is one of the concept of basic learned student in the study program Education Teachers Elementary (PGSD), the University of Adi Buana Surabaya. Geometry includes the concept of on point, the line, the field, and objects space and sifatsifatnya. Geometry is also part of the math close to everyday life, because almost all the object visual is around us is the object geometry (Safriana et al, 2014). The concepts is very important especially as a preparation to be a elementary school teacher.
The writer often found a mistake the concept of basic presented students, for example of giving the name of waking up the flat or not sequence (false), classification each wake up is often wrong, like the cube and block saying wake up flat, trapezoid said wake up the room, not he explained the difference traits each wake up. In the solve a problem geometry, students tend to use the same way with taught by faculty. This suggests that there are barriers learn students PGSD on geometry material.
One of the obstacles learn students PGSD on geometry material in the course of the concept of basic math is barriers to learn that are epistemology. The student simply understand one of the material limited in certain context, so that when he was faced with the context of different it will be experienced adversity. The learning used not to facilitate lecturer to prepare anticipation against the possibility of various response students in the learning. Materials impertinent used not contains a variety of capable guide students to build knowledge. Therefore, the necessary for the process of planning learning as the initial steps of learning that can reduce the obstacles to learn. Didactic design is the design of the food ingredients rude. This design developed on the basis of the theory triangle didactic among students, the teacher and material that includes Didactic Relations (DR), Pedagogic Relations (PR) and Didactic Anticipation Pedagogical (DAP). The design didactic in writing this developed based on the nature of the concept that will be presented with consider barriers to learn that been identified.
From the description of the above, the authors interested to develop design didaktis to reduce the obstacles to learn that been identified. Through this article is expected to lecturer have understanding of the more clearly and comprehensive about the design didactic so can reduce the obstacles learn students PGSD on geometry material.
 The obstacles Learning Student PGSD on Geometry
2.1.1 The obstacles goals
The purpose of learning math in the study program Faculty PGSD is so that students actualize learning at the highest level. However, Ciltas and Tatar (2011: 462) argued that most of the students have trouble in learning. To identify and eliminate trouble learn as well as to help and guide students during the learning process is not just a responsibility faculty. Therefore, faculty should be aware of the difficulty experienced by the student in the learning math to do the activities of learning effectively in the learning and develop as well as the design the learning.
In the study math should gradually and chronological, because of the material in math composed ranging from the material basic towards the material next more complex, therefore should through stage certain that every stage should be controlled before heading stage that the level of trouble higher. Learning math better begins with the consider input and output first before moved on the internal processing. On learning geometry, for example wake up flat. Faculty want the results of the students who are able to apply the concept of in set of problem complex, then the learning process should designed in such a way that is able to reach the results of the desired. In a class, possible, just happened the concept of received students with each other students. This is because the difference perception about the concepts in introduced by faculty with the concept was introduced by faculty with the concept that formed in beak students. Tall and Vinner (in Juter, 2005: 11) about the concept image and concept definition as follows.
The concept image is the total cognitive structure associated with a concept. It can be a visualitation of theconcept or experiences of it or both. The concept image is individual and in different contexts the same name can evoke different concept image. The concept definition is a form of words used by the learner to define the concept. It can be a personal reconstruction of a definition to fit in with the person’s mental structure.
Some students more like to think it is visually and have illustration in mind, while students who else more adept at using symbols or examples. One of the concept of can is represented in some way so that caused the conflict in a different. If not each representation of each other contradiction so students can understand the relationship between representation of with each other. The more connection between representation there, the student will be increasingly understood will be the concept. This applies versa.
According to the Prediger (2008), the change in the framework of thinking has become the most important to explain the trouble of students in the learning the concept of science and mathematics. As the theory proposed by Piaget that learning is not always is a collection of from a variety of the knowledge that added to in the knowledge before aenrichment process. More than that, learning is reconstruction of knowledge before when dealing with the experience and challenge new.
The problem changes conceptually could arise when the knowledge of the beginning of students in accordance with the concepts just needed. Therefore, in this perspective, the fact that the establishment of the concept of students don’t always in accordance with the concept of science is meant to be described with the influence of the establishment of the concept of the beginning and the process is perfect from reconstruction them.
Exposure to above is the possibilities of the obstacles to learn, so before do learning, lecturer should be able to identify the obstacles. According to the KBBI, barriers is obstancleor the obstacles. The obstacles have the significance important when someone carry out the activities or carry out the task. Based on what has outlined, barriers learning is things that happen in the learning resulted in the student trouble understanding of the material or wrong in making perception regarding the matter.
According to the Brousseau (2002) there are three factor that resulted in college students have barriers learned that the ontogeniobstacles (the readiness mental children’s learning), the obstacles didaktic (teaching), and barriers epistemology (the knowledge of students who have the context of apps limited). In this article focus writer is associated with the obstacles epistimologis or epistimological obstacle in reality is the knowledge of someone who is only limited in certain context, so that when he was faced with a different situation can lead to the knowledge that owned be can not be used or having trouble in use it. The epistemology obstacles this is the obstacles learn (learning obstacle) derived from the themselves students. Each student has an opportunity to the same to experience the epistemology obstacles.
 The obstacles Learning Student PGSD on Geometry
Tall (in Ciltas & Taltar, 2011: 462) said the obstacles learn students in general is: (1) Learning the concept of the basis of the lack of adequate; (2) The inability in trying to mathematical formulate orally; (3) lack of skills algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. The trouble or barriers experienced students can happen when students learned the concept of any including on one of the concept of important in math, namely geometry.
Geometry is one of the concept of basic learned in courses math basic II in the study program Education Teachers Elementary (PGSD) FKIP University PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya. The material taught covering the concept of point, the line, and the field of as well as a each other, the concept of triangle, the concept of the circle. The concepts is very important and basic to be able to understand the concepts geometry. Associated with the concept of geometry learned in Elementary School (SD) also very closely, where the concept of wake up flat and waking up the learned also includes wake up, the elements as well as traits that applies to every waking learned. Discussion of learning materials or geometry for learning math elementary school is discussed in the course of math basic II.
In practice, often writer found problems the concept of basic geometry presented students, such as refer to wake up flat or wake up the room with a flat and buildings space, giving the name of waking up the flat or not sequence (wrong), classification each wake up is often wrong, like the cube and block saying wake up flat, trapezoid said to wake up the room, not he explained the difference traits each wake up, and determine formula volume with formula widely the surface, said example wake up flat. For example, when the lecturer ask example rectangle to students, then the answer to the student is blackboards, the book wrote an example of a rectangle, but if understood further examples is worth wrong. According to David Glover (2007: 10) said that got up the flat is waking up the average that can be cut from a paper. David (2007: 20) also stated that wake up flat had two dimensions, namely long and wide but do not have high.
When they go into the teacher in elementary school, is expected to they do not deliver problems about geometry material, especially about and waking up the flat. In a wide and around for example, usually the elementary school teacher still confused if the students ask the teacher about the origin of the formula wide and around. This suggests that needed planting the concept of wide and around to prospective elementary school teachers. Determine the concept of wide and around it was not easy to learn. Prospective elementary school teachers must also know that many discoveries where students combining the concept of around with the concept of widespread. This kind of thing not in spite of the role of teachers in guide students so mistake in using the concept of can minimalization.
During this time the author assume that the problems arises because the student nervous appear and in the learning process of being a teacher. Because of the problem is always comes up for every force that follow the course courses math basic II, the new author questioned about the ability to geometry students about the concept geometry learned in elementary school is to give the test. It was the result is very unexpectedly writer, where the average student just understanding between 4050% of course the concepts geometry material math in elementary school. Still occurred several construct, such as refer to wake up flat with the building flat, gave the name of plane, point in lower case, etc. This indicates that the student PGSD University PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya still require the process of planting concepts for all geometry material learned that can master it.
Based on the results of the analysis of the author as lecturer courses the concept of math basic, the writers identify some barriers learn students PGSD on geometry material as follows.
Table 1. The obstacles Learning Student PGSD on Geometry
No.  The type of Barriers to learn  Indicator 
1  The obstancles to learn about concept image  Students couldn’t see firmly, said the name of plane flat and determine base, high or components other in the wake flat shown on about when plane flat is presented different from the introduced to students. 
2  The obstancles about the context of a variety of information on question  Students deceived with information on the question 
3  The obstacles to learn about the relationship around and broad between rectangular with each other  Can’t find the relationship between around and broad rectangular with each other without the information on the matter 
4  The obstacles to learn about the connection concept wide and around and the rectangular with the mathematic concept another  Don’t be able to resolve the issue of around or wide area rectangular related to the mathematic concept another 
5  The obstacles learn associated with the ability to student in solving problems up the geometry to construct  Can’t solve the problem of geometry to construct 
 The design Didaktis to Decrease The Learning Barrier
Pegagogic and didactic is two a term describing a the learning process. The science of education or often called pedagogic is translation of English, namely pedagogics. Pedagogics comes from the Greek namely “pais” which means that the child, and “again” which means that guide (Sagala, 2012: 2). According to the Piaget in Arends (2008: 4647), pedagogics good it should be involved offer a variety of a situation where children can experimenting various things to see what happened, manipulate objects, manipulate of symbols, threw questions and looking for his own response, what a reconciliation the discovery of at a time with what the discovery of on time another, comparing with the findings other children.
Didactic comes from the word didaksein in Greek means of teaching and didaktikos which means that good teaching. Both are one unity so can not be separated in the learning process. Lecturer professional will be able to develop pedagogik and didactic so learning will take place in optimally. The teacher professional should be able to create a teacher, students, and the material impertinent integrated well.
A teacher, students, the material described by kansenen into a triangle didaktis. Triangle didactic this then modified because just described the relationship pedagogic (PR) between teachers and students and relationships didaktic (DR) among students and material. After modified triangle didactic describe the relationship pedagogic (HP) between teachers and students and relationships didaktic among students and material called anticipation didactic and pedagogic (ADP).
The connection should be used as a material consideration in the design of learning. The relationship pedagogic (PR) reflected in the style, engineering, or methods used in the learning. The relationship didactic (DR) reflected in the ability to lecturer design worksheets students, the test, and the task. Anticipation didactic reflected in the materials impertinent prepared lecturer or giving an assignment professors about the depth and keluasan material rude, anticipation conducted lecturer against the response students at the time of learning, anticipation this made when the design of learning based its prediction response students.
Suryadi (2011: 4) said that the role of the most important lecturer in the context of triangle didactic is:
Create a situation didactic so that happened the learning process in themselves students. This means that a teacher in addition to master the material rude, also need to have the knowledge of other associated with the students and able to create a situation didactic prompted the learning process in optimally.
In the develop situation didactic teachers should be fit with the environment so that students have the opportunity to initiate the activity of learning in individual. Next in the face ofadversity learning, interaktivitas developed lecturer should be adapted to the need students in achieving potential.
In the learning process the response given a student of the situation didactic faced, demanding lecturer to act didaktis for scaffolding technique varying so created some situation didaktis different. The complexities of the situation didactic is a challenge for teachers to be able to create a situation pedagogic appropriate so interactivity growing able to support the process of achievement the ability of potential each student (Suryadi, 2011: 8).
According to the Brousseau (2002) to create a situation didactic and pedagogic appropriate, in devised a plan learning lecturer need looked at the situation learning as a whole as an object. The situation didactic and pedagogic in the learning process is complex so lecturer should be able to develop the ability to looked at the learning process as a whole.
Based on the description of the above, design didactic is the design of the food ingredients impertinent. The design didactic in this article developed based on the nature of the concept that will be presented with consider barriers to learn that been identified. The design didactic is designed to can reduce the obstacles learn students PGSD on geometry material.
 The conclusion
Act of buttoning this article as follows.
 One of the obstacles learn students PGSD on geometry material in the course of the concept of basic math is barriers to learn that are epistemologic. The student simply understand one of the material limited in certain context, so that when he was faced with the context of different it will be experienced adversity. Based on the obstacles to learn that has been identified, is expected to compose the learning consisting of study, Detailed Learning Semester, as well as prediction response and anticipation didactic.
 The design didactic in this article developed based on the nature of the concept that will be presented with consider barriers to learn that been identified. The design didactic is designed to can reduce the obstacles learn students PGSD on geometry material.
REFERENCES
Arends. 2008. Belajar untuk Mengajar.Yogyakarta: Pustaka Belajar.
Brousseau, Guy. 2002. Theory of Didactical Situation in Mathematics. New York: Kluwer Academic Publisher.
Ciltas, A & Tatar, E. 2011. Diagnosing Learning Difficulties Related to the Equation and Inequality that Contain Terms with Absolute Value. International Online Journal of Educational Sciense. Diakses pada tanggal 29 Januari 2016.
David Glover. 2007. Apa dan Bagaimana Matematika. Jakarta: PT Gading Inti Prima.
Safrina, K., Ikhsan M., & Ahmad (2014). Peningkatan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Geometri melalui Pembelajaran Kooperatif Berbasis Teori Van Hiele. Jurnal Didaktik Matematika. 1(10): 10.
Sagala, Saiful. 2010. Konsep dan Makna Pembelajaran. Bandung: Alfhabeta.
Suryadi, Didi. (2011). Didactical Design Research (DDR) dalam Pengembangan Pembelajaran Matematika. Makalah Disajikan pada Joint Conference UPIUiTM, 25 April 2011.
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