Sentence Structure Used By Students Of English Education Program At States University Of Surabaya In Writing An Abstract


WAHANA || Jurnal Ilmiah Sains & Ilmu Pendidikan
Volume 64 | Nomor 1 | Juni 2015 | ISSN: 0853-4403
Penerbit : - Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya
           - Pascasarjana Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya

Penulis  : Rikat Eka Prastyawan

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Abstrak

Abstrak memiliki peran penting berdasarkan tujuan tertentu yang dapat digunakan untuk memilih topik dan mempertimbangkan apakah pembaca harus mengambil langkah yangdiperlukan untuk membaca sebagian atau seluruh teks utama.

Menulis abstrak menjadi salah satu syarat dalam melengkapi skripsi yang menjadi syarat kelulusan. Abstrak harus mencakup semua hal yang mahasiswa lakukan dalam penelitian mereka dan untuk memberikan gambaran keseluruhan sebagai hasil dari penelitian mereka. Namun, tidak semua orang bisa menulis abstrak dengan baik. Ada masalah umum dalam menulis abstrak yang biasanya sering dilakukan. Banyak mahasiswa yang menulis abstrak dengan menggunakan pernyataan yang tidak perlu, kata, frasa, atau dengan mengulang-ulang suatu pernyataan untuk membuat tulisan panjang sedangkan menulis abstrak harus ringkas dan jelas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan bagaimana struktur kalimat siswa dalam menulis abstrak. Penelitian ini menggunakan deskriptif kualitatif yang menggunakan purposive sampling dalam teknik pengumpulan data berdasarkan skripsi mahasiswa yang mendapat nilai sangat baik. Byrd dan Benson, (2001: 37) menyatakan bahwa struktur kalimat pada umumnya meliputi kalimat sederhana, dan majemuk untuk mengungkapkan suatu gagasan dalam pernyataan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa struktur kalimat siswa yang terdiri dari kalimat sederhana dan majemuk tersebut dominan memiliki kesalahan dalam penggunaan tanda baca (koma), pola pemilihan kata, dan juga konjungsi yang digunakan dalam menggabungkan kalimat.

Kata kunci: abstrak, struktur kalimat, Program Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris


BACKGROUND OF STUDY

An Abstract is a brief written summary of the purposes, results and conclusions of the research which must be written by the students to complete their academic writing. Abstract has the important roles based on the certain purposes. Abstract can be used to select the topic and consider whether the reader must take the steps necessary to read part or all of the main texts. Writing an abstract becomes one of the requirements to finish their academic writing. It must cover all the things that the students do in their research and to give the whole important outlines as the result of their research. However, not all people can write abstracts well. There are common problems in writing abstracts that usually people do. There are many students who wrote an abstracts by using unnecessary statements, words, phrases, or by repeating them in order to make long writing whereas writing an abstract must be concise and clear. Based on the background above, the researcher investigated the sentence structure used by students of English Education Program at States University of Surabaya in writing abstracts.

Sentence Structure                                             

Sentence structure in academic writing is considered important as it influences the readability of writing. Moreover, by using proper sentence structure, it helps readers to understand the text. In academic writing, there are four types of sentences which can be used: (1) the simple sentence, (2) compound sentence, (3) complex sentence, and (4) compound-complex sentence (Byrd and Benson, 2001: 37). The simple sentence is the basic one to create the other types.

The most frequent sentences used in writing are simple sentences. The simple sentence begins with a simple structure of subject-verb-object, or subject-verb-complement (McCrimmon, 1967: 143). To make it more meaningful, then the simple sentence is embedded by additional information through coordination and modification. Coordination refers to the process of combining similar structures/compounds into series (McCrimmon, 1967: 143). For instance, Technology is a creative process. Technology is an innovative process. These common sentences can be coordinated as they have the some compound that is adjectives then they become Technology is creative and innovative process.

In modification, additional information is embedded in the word which is modified or called as headword. For instance, for the headwords The boy was found can be added with the information that the boy had been missing, that he was found in a gravel pit, that the finding occurred late this afternoon, and that he was unharmed then the modified sentence becomes the missing boy was found unharmed in a gravel pit late this afternoon. (McCrimon, 1968: 142).

When two (or more) simple sentences (or independent clauses) are combined by a comma and a coordinating word or by a semicolon, it is then called a compound sentence (Byrd and Benson, 2001: 39). Coordinating words or coordinating conjunctions such as and, but, or, nor, yet, so have the function to join equal units (Emery, Kierzek, and Lindblom, 2005: 62). Moreover, in compound sentence, a comma is necessary as it distinguishes whether the coordinating word joins the compound predicate or simple sentences. Let us consider the following sentences:

Technology is a creative and

 innovative process.

 

Young children imitate the language sounds around them, and they learn to speak by listening and by repeating.

The coordinating word and in first sentence joins the complement a creative process and an innovative process. Moreover, the first sentence is a simple sentence and thus a comma is not embedded before the coordinating word and. Unlike first sentence the coordinating word and in second sentence join two simple sentences Young children imitate the language sounds around them, and They learn to speak by listening and by repeating. Thus, it is necessary to add a comma before the coordinating word.

In addition, in compound sentence, semicolon is embedded when there is no word that ties the simple sentences such No one was in sight: I was alone in the huge auditorium. Emery, Kierzek, and LIndblom, 2005:63). Moreover, the transition words such as therefore, however, nevertheless, moreover, consequently, otherwise, besides, furthermore, and, accordingly are commonly followed by a comma (ibid). However, to make a sentence less formal, it is usually added by a semicolon and commas within the second clause such as Your arguments were well presented: we feel, however, that the plan is too expensive.

A complex sentence is constructed by a subordinate clause and a simple sentence (Byrd and Benson, 2001:45). A subordinate clause cannot stand by itself, thus it is also called as dependent clause. Moreover, a subordinate clause is embedded with subordinating word to introduce the clause and it can be an adverbial clause, a relative clause, or a noun clause (ibid). Subordinating words which are classified to introduce adverbial clauses are after, although, as, because, before, even though, if, since, unless, until, when, where, where, and while. Those which are embedded to relative clauses are that, when, where, which, who, whom, and whose. Subordinate word that can also be used to introduce noun clauses. The followings are the examples sentences which are constructed by different types of subordinate clauses:

When we arrived at the station, we found that the train already left. (adverbial clause).

This is the book that I bought yesterday.(relative clause)

I believe that English is not difficult. (noun clause)

When a sentence is constructed by two (or more) simple sentences and on (or more dependent clause (s) ), it refers to compound-complex sentence (Byrd and Benson, 2001: 47). In addition, it is possible when a complex sentence becomes a compound-complex sentence when it is added with a simple sentence as the following examples:

When we arrived at the station, we found that the train already left. (Complex sentence).

Because we found that the train already left when we arrived at the station, we decided to take a bus. (Compound-complex sentence).

Moreover, it is also possible to construct a compound-complex sentence by adding a subordinate clause in a compound sentence as the following examples:

Young children imitate the language sounds around them, and they learn to speak by listening and by repeating. (compound sentence)

When young children acquire the first language, they imitate the language sounds around them, and they learn to speak by listening and by repeating. (compound-complex sentence).

To produce sentences which are understandable for readers, a writer should consider four factors that make sentences to be effective: (1) unity, (2) economy, (3) emphasis, and (4) variety (McCrimmon, 1967: 151-160). Unity refers to logical relation that makes the sentences as a whole. A sentence is considered economy when the number of words meets the amount of meaning conveyed. A short sentence does not mean uneconomic if it states the meaning clearly. Then, emphasis is related with purpose and styles. Emphasis deals with unity and economy since both affect emphasis. Regarding variety in sentence structures, it is more effective if a writer uses varied sentences with varied lengths and patterns to avoid producing monotonous paragraphs.

RESEARCH METHOD

Researcher used a descriptive qualitative in a research method. The instrument is the researcher himself by analyzing the students’ abstracts related to the sentence structure through collecting, classifying, reducing, selecting, and displaying the data. The data in this study are all of the words, phrases, and sentences written in the students’ abstracts whose thesis were excellent, while the source of the data were the students of English Education Program. The researcher found the score of the students who got excellent in their thesis writing and noted the title of their thesis. Then, the researcher copied their abstracts to read and analyzed based on the sentence structure they used.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Students’ Sentence Structures In Writing Abstracts

Students’ sentence structures become one of the considerations to make the abstracts’ language more concise. if he/she is able to combine the sentences well, automatically, the sentences become more concise and they will be easy to understand. Sentence Structures consist of the simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and also compound complex sentence. Students’ sentence structures of abstracts can be described as follows            :

Abstract 1

The title of abstract 1 is “Using Animated Movie to Teach Listening Narrative Text to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 2 Bangkalan” the sentence structures of abstract 1 can be described as follows:

Listening is one of the English skills which is considered as a vital skill in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner.

That statement is complex sentence which consists of

  • Independent clause : Listening is one of the English skills.
  • Dependent clause : which is considered as a vital skill in the language

classroom

  • Dependent clause : because it provides input for the learner.

 

The sentences will be long and has the repetition of the subject when it is written by using the simple sentence. The writer can combine the simple sentences that have the same subject by using the complex sentence. However, it is better if the complex sentence consists of one independent clause and one dependent clause in order to make the clear sentence. So, she/he can writer “Listening is one of English skills. It is considered as a vital skill in the language classroom because it provides input for the learners”.

“Then, it was found that the t-table was 2.00 and the t-value was 4.61.”

The sentence above belongs to complex sentence because it is separated with subordinating word “that” and has one Independent clause with two dependent clauses. So, it belongs to clause.

  • Independent clause : It was found
  • Dependent clause : that the t-table was 2.00
  • Dependent clause : that the t-value was 4.61.

Subordinating word “and” separates the two of dependent clause, but both of them do not have the same subject. So, it should be separated by comma. He/she can write the italic sentences above with “Then, it was found that the t-table was 2.00, and the t-value was 4-61”.

So, the t-value was higher than the t-table (4.61>2.00) meaning there was a significant difference in student’s listening narrative text ability between the students who are taught by using animated movie and those who are taught without using animated movie

The sentences above cannot be combined into one sentence. It will be difficult to understand. He/she should write “So, the t-value was higher than the t-table (4.61 > 2.00). It meant that there was a significant difference in student’s listening narrative text ability between the students who are taught by using animate movie and those who are taught without using animated movie.”

The statements above consist of two sentences. The first sentence belongs to simple sentence that consists of Subject and Verb. The second sentence belongs to complex sentence that consist of one independent clause and noun clause.

  • Independent clause : it meant
  • Dependent clause : that that there was a significant difference in

students’ listening narrative text ability between the students who are taught by using animated  movie and those who are taught without using  animated movie

Based on the description above, it can be got some findings that sentences in abstract 1 have the complex-compound sentences that should be revised in a good order. So, the readers will understand the content of abstract easily. in another hand, the punctuation mark (comma) should be paid attention in creating the complex sentence. Not all the complex sentences use a comma; however, some of them need a comma to separate the independent clause and dependent clause.

 

Abstract 2

The Students’ sentence structures in writing abstract 2 can be described as follows            :

The writer collected the data through observation in the classroom when the teaching learning process took, giving students’ task; individual tasks and group compositions, and questionnaire

The statement above is difficult to understand because it does not have the proper sentence structures. It belongs to complex sentence that has the unclear meaning in dependent clause.

  • Independent clause : The writer collected the data through observation in the classroom
  • Dependent clause : when the teaching learning process took, giving students’ task; individual tasks and group compositions, and questionnaire.

 

It’s better to replace the statements with “The writer collected the data by using the instruments that consist of students’ task (group & individual composition), and questionnaires”. The sentence structure of the statement is complex sentence that has two independent clauses, and it is followed by relative clause.

  • Independent clause : the writer collected the data by using the instruments
  • Dependent clause : that consists of students’ task, and questionnaires.

Most learners pointed out that it was very useful to help them understand and practice the grammar in context.

The statement above belongs to complex sentence. It has one independent clause and two dependent clauses.

Independent clause     : Most learners pointed out

Dependent clause        : that it was very useful to help them understand the grammar in context.

Dependent clause        : that it was very useful to help them practice the grammar in context

The use of comma as the punctuation mark is not used to separate between dependent clause and dependent clause because it has the same subject.

It can be seen from the results of the students’ tasks after being taught by using EEE

That statement is categorized as the complex sentence because it has one independent clause and one dependent clause. Subordinating word “after” also indicates the complex sentence.

Independent clause     : It can be seen from the result of the students’ task

Dependent clause        : after being taught by using EEE.

Athough their scores did not increase significantly, but it was better when it compared from the first implementation, the second implementation, and the third implementation

The italic sentence above belongs to complex sentence because it actually has one independent clause and more than one dependent clause. The word “but” in that sentence is not needed. So, it should be omitted. The sentence becomes “Although their scores did not increase significantly, it was better when it was compared from the first until the third implementation.

Independent clause     : It was better.

Dependent clause        : although their scores did not increase significantly.

Dependent clause        : when it was compared from the first until the third implementation.

            From the description above, it can be got some findings that sentence structures in abstract 2 have the complex sentences that he/she should pay attention in the use of subordinating word. It indicates the kind of sentence structures that separate independent clause and dependent clause. It also is used to determine whether the punctuation mark is needed or not. In other hand, the complex sentence also should have one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. If he/she does not pay attention to the rules, she /he will not be able to write the sentence structures properly.

Abstract 3

            Sentence structures in abstract 3 can be described as follows:

The aim of this study is to find out whether or not there is a significance difference in terms of listening comprehension in narrative text between the students who are taught by using comic strips and those who are not taught by using comic strips and how the students respond towards the use of comic strips in teaching comprehension at SMA ULUL ALBAB Islamic Full Day School

The statement above belongs to compound-complex sentences. It has more than one independent clause, and more than one dependent clause. However, the word “whether or not there is a “should be omitted to get simple one. He/she should give the comma to separate between dependent clause and dependent clause. So, the statement above becomes “The aims of this study is to find out the significant difference in terms of listening comprehension in narrative text between the students who are taught by using comic strips, and those who are not taught by using comic strips, and how the students’ responds towards the use of comic strips in teaching comprehension at SMA ULUL ALBAB Islamic Full day School”.

Independent clause     : the aim of this study is to find out the significant difference in terms of listening comprehension in narrative text between the students.

Independent clause     : how the students’ responds towards the use of comic strips in teaching comprehension at SMA ULUL ALBAB Islamic Full day School”.

Dependent sentence    :who are taught by using comic strips

Dependent sentence    :who are not taught by using comic strips

The conjunction word “and those” should be preceded by comma because it has the subject in every clauses.

The data collection technique is by pre test and post test and also a questionnaire

The italic statements above is simple sentence, however, it does not have the proper verb. He/she should write the statements become “the data collection technique is done by pre test, post test, and also questionnaires.

The data analysis technique uses t-test calculated by SPSS Statistic 17.0 find the difference between students’ pre test and post test scores of experimental and control group.

The italic statement above belongs to complex sentence that has on independent clause, and more than one dependent clause. The word “to”should be added before the word “find” to make the proper statements.

Independent clause     : the data analysis technique uses t-test

Dependent clause        : calculated by SPSS Statistic 17.0 to find the difference between students’ pre test and post test scores of experimental group.

Dependent clause        : calculated by SPSS Statistic 17.0 to find the difference between students’ pre test and post test scores of control group.

Thus, the hypothesis, which says that there is a significance difference in terms of listening comprehension between the students who are taught by using comic strips and those who are not taught by using comic strips, was accepted  

That statement belongs to complex sentence that has one independent clause, and more than one dependent clause. The comma as the punctuation mark should be added to separate between dependent clause and dependent clause.

Independent clause     : thus, the hypothesis was accepted.

Dependent clause        : which says

Dependent clause        : that there is a significant difference in terms of listening comprehension between the students who are taught by using comic strips, and those who are not taught by using comic strips.

The students thought that the use of comic strips in teaching listening comprehension was interesting, not too long and not too troublesome, helped them in listening section, eased them to answer the questions and to understand the text, made them like listening more than before, and made them feel relax and enthusiastic

The statement above belongs to complex sentence because it has one independent clause, and more than one dependent clause.

Independent clause     : the students though

Dependent clause        : that the use of comic strips in teaching listening comprehension was interesting, not too long and  not too troublesome

dependent clause        : that helped them in listening section and to understand the text

dependent clause        : that made them like listening more than before

dependent clause        : and made them feel relax and enthusiastic.

The dependent clauses above indicate the noun clauses that use the subordinating word “that” to separate between independent clause and dependent clause. In the other hand, he/she uses a comma to separate among dependent clauses.

Based on the description above, it can be got some findings that the sentence structures of abstract 3 has the proper sentence structures. However, the use of punctuation mark “comma” should be paid attention to separate the clauses which has the complete subject and verb. The part of speech also has the important roles to determine the sentence structures, otherwise, the sentence will not have the proper sentence structures.

Abstract 4

            Sentence structures of abstract 4 can be described as follows:

The aims of this study are to describe the implementation the combination of Mind mapping and group Investigation in teaching speaking to the eighth graders to create descriptive speeches and to describe the students’ speaking abilities after they are taught using the technique

The sentence above belongs to compound complex sentence because it has more than one independent clause, and one dependent clause. However, she/he does not pay attention to the structures of compound-complex sentence. The word “the implementation the combination”. It’s better to put both words by using compound sentence. So, the statement becomes “The aims of this study are to describe the implementation of Mind Mapping and the combination of Group Investigation in teaching speaking to the eighth graders to create descriptive speeches and to describe the students’ speaking abilities after they are taught by using the technique.

Independent clause     : The aims of this study are to describe the  implementation of Mind Mapping in teaching speaking to the eighth graders to create descriptive speeches and to describe the students’ speaking abilities

Independent clause     : The aims of this study are to describe the combination of Group Investigation in teaching speaking to the eighth graders to create descriptive speeches and to describe the students’ speaking abilities

dependent clause        : After they are taught by using the technique.

Mind Maps are non-linear thinking and associative memory which use connections between keywords to map knowledge to help improve understanding and recall.

The statement above belongs to complex sentence that consist of more than one independent clause and one dependent clause. However, he/she should omit the word “help” in dependent clause because the word “recall” should be changed by “recalling” as a noun. The sentence becomes “Mind Maps are non-linear thinking and associative memory which use connections between keywords to map knowledge to improve understanding and recalling.

Independent clause     : Mind Maps are non-linear thinking

Independent clause     : Mind Maps are associative memory

Dependent clause        : which use connections between keywords to map knowledge to improve understanding and recalling.

Based on the description above, it can be got some findings that the sentence structure of abstract 4 has the compound complex sentence which are not arranged well. Part of Speech in every word becomes the consideration to make the sentence easily understand. One simple sentence must have one verb, It’s not more than one.

Abstract 5

            Sentence structures of abstract 5 can be described as follows

The data were collected using the observation sheet to observe the teaching and learning activites during the implementation of humorous picture series, and from the students’ compositions to describe the students’ writing skill in writing spoof texts.

The statement above belongs to simple sentence that has complements. The word “collected” and “using” can be added with the word “by”. So, it is clear that the word “using” role as a noun, while were collected as a verb.

In conclusion, humorous picture series which are taken from Jawa Pos newspaper can be used as media to teach writing spoof text, especially to the eleventh grade students since those media can motivate the students to express their ideas, thoughts, and make them more creative and interpretative in writing spoof texts

The statement above belongs to compound-complex sentence that has more than one independent clause and also more than one dependent clause.

Independent clause     : In conclusion, humorous picture series can be used as media to teach writing spoof text, especially to the eleventh grade students.

Independent clause     : And make them more creative and interpretative in writing spoof texts

dependent clause        : Which are taken from Jawa Pos

dependent clause        : Since those media can motivate the students to  express their ideas, thoughts

Based on the description above, it can be got some findings that the sentence structures of abstract 5 are able to write well. However, the understanding in part of speech has the important role to separate between verb and noun by giving to infinitive, or changing the part of speech. Since the writer pay attention to the sentence structure of simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and compound-complex sentence, he/she can write the sentences in a good order.

CONCLUSION

This research investigate about the students’ structures of abstracts made by the graduates of English Education Program of States University of Surabaya. Based on the results and discussion of the research, the undergraduates of English Education Program of States University of Surabaya write abstracts in various sentence structure. They used simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences, and compound complex sentences to write abstracts in theses’ abstracts. However, dominantly they have problems in the use of punctuation mark (comma), identifying the part of speech in the words, and also the subordinating words to combine among sentences

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Byrd, Patricia., and Benson Beverly. 2001. Applied English Grammar. Boston: Heinle.

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McCrimmon, James M. 1967. Writing with a Purpose. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

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