LEARNING METHOD CHARACTER EDUCATION: Improved optimization of Refraction Attitudes Good for Students in Kindergarten
PROCEEDINGS || International Conference Enhancing Education Quality In Facing Asian Community 30 Mei 2015 || ISBN: 978-602-8047-83-8 Penerbit : Post Graduate Program University of PGRI Semarang Penulis 1: Wawan Gunawan Penulis 2: Wiwin Andriani Penulis 3: Hari Karyono
The purpose of this study was to describe the teaching methods implemented character education in kindergarten. This research method is qualitative research with case study approach. Collecting data using the methods of documentation, observation and interviews.
Based on data collection and data analysis obtained the following results: (1) character education methods applied by teachers to students is by way of habituation, giving examples of good and exemplary behavior from teachers at the school; (2) learning methods are often used by teachers in character education, among others, in order of priority is to (a) tell you, (b) question and answer, (c) playing the role and (d) habituation-conditioning; (3) the difficulties faced by the majority of teachers in teaching character education in kindergarten are characteristics of learners are quite diverse in background and living environment of students who are very influential; and (4) a solution to overcome the difficulties faced by teachers in implementing the learning method for character education in kindergarten is a way to habituation every day regarding the attitude and good behavior, giving exemplary and cooperation with parents through books liaison and meetings held formal and informal school.
Key words: methods of learning, character education, optimization, habituation.
Character education is currently a topic of conversation phenomenal in the field of education in Indonesia. Ki Hajar Devantoro, the father of Indonesian education states that education is an effort to foster character (characters), mind (Intellect) and the child’s body. All three, should not be separated, so that children can grow up perfectly.
Dear unfortunate character education in Indonesia has not been touched, still at the level of the introduction of norms or values, not to the extent of internalization and concrete actions in everyday life. Education tend to promote mastery of the scientific aspects and intelligence. This is because education in classes of no more than scholastic exercises, like to know, compare, train and memorized, which is very simple cognitive abilities at the lowest level (Simanjuntak, 2012).
Character education is a model of educational formation of character and personality of learners in accordance noble values of the nation. Character and personality expected of students, among others, honesty, discipline, order, freedom, independence, tolerance, obedience, and justice.
Character education is not the same as moral education. Character education has a higher level and more complex than moral education. Character education is not just to teach right or wrong, but trying to inculcate the habit of good deeds, which can meneyebabkan learners understand the right and wrong, is able to live the values and can practice it.
Character education in order to work well, the school needs to create an atmosphere conducive to raise the following matters: (1) faith, (2) piety, (3) honesty, (4) independence and responsibility, (4) model, (5) democratic atmosphere, caring, openness, togetherness, security, public order, (11) cleanliness, (12) health, (13) beauty, and (14) manners.
Puskur (Curriculum Center) of the Ministry of National Education (2011) in relation to the development of a school culture that is carried out in relation to self-development, suggested four things that include (1) kegiatam routine, (2) spontaneous activity, (3) exemplary, (4) conditioning. Therefore, as a consequence of character education in schools should be one of two general purpose of education; whose goal is to teach the intelligence and academic skills (teaching academic content and skills). (Suyanto, 2010).
At school, teachers have a strategic role in instilling character education. Related to the methodology in accordance with the character education, Lickona (1991) suggested that lasts effective character education, the teacher may seek implementation of various methods such as storytelling about the story, a story or a fairy tale appropriate, assign students to read literature, carry out case studies, role playing , discussions, debates about the moral as well as the implementation of cooperative learning.
Educational experts in Indonesia, is generally agreed that character education should be started from the age of the children (golden age), because it proved decisive age children’s ability to develop its potential. The results showed that approximately 50% of the variability of the intelligence of adults already occurred when the child was 4 years old. The next 30% increase occurred at the age of 8 years, and 20% were in the mid or end of the second decade. Therefore, it is fitting character education starts within the family which is the early environment for growing children (Samani & Hariyanto, 2011).
Chou, Yang and Huang (2014) is based on the findings of its research in Taiwan proposes that character education should start as early as possible. Similarly expressed also by Ferdiawan & Son (2013) that early age is very strategic to establish the age of the child’s personality. Therefore an early age is the age of a person learning to recognize the beginning of life in the surrounding areas and recognize who he is. Education at an early age to be a factor determining the quality of a person when he was growing.
The level of discourse, character education must be applied at an early age to college. While the operational level, character education must be applied since at Kindergarten (TK) to optimize the teacher as a figure that directly deal with a bunch of students. The problem is how should the planting of character education can be effectively implemented at the level of education in kindergarten.
This study used a qualitative approach with case study design. According to Bogdan & Biklen (1982, 1993) that the so-called case study is a detailed review of over a background, or one subject, or a document storage area, or a particular event. While the trademark of this case study is easier to implement than the study of multi-site and multi-subject. The location of this research is in kindergarten Bhayangkari 97 Porong Sidoarjo. Key informant is Principal, while other informants are principals, teachers and administrative staff in the kindergarten Bhayangkari 97 Porong Sidoarjo. Data collection techniques used in this study were (1) in-depth interviews (depth interview), (b) participant observation (participant observation) and (3) study the documentation (documentation study). Data analysis performed in this study is qualitative descriptive. Data analysis was performed repeatedly to answer the question raised in the formulation of the problem. There are three stages are done in data analysis, namely (1) data reduction, (2) display the data, and (3) conclusion. While checking the validity of the findings by the method of the credibility and dependability. Credibility is done by (1) a profound observation, (2) triangulation, (3) the negative analysis, and (4) the checking member.
Based on data collection in the study site, may put forward the results of the study as follows:
- How teachers Embedding Character Education to Students in kindergarten Based on the interview to the informant about how to instill character education teacher in kindergarten can be seen in Table 1 below.
Table 1. How to Instill the Character Education of Students Kindergarten
|No||The way Instill Character Education||Number||Percentage|
|1.||Doing habituation-conditioning in the school, ranging from the lightest-light for example, participate introduction / protecting the environment, always say a prayer when starting any activity, guiding learners to be honest.||4||40%|
|3.||Through learning methods applied storytelling good characters in children||1||10%|
|4.||Play a role.||1||10%|
|5.||Guiding students to share with their peers.||l||10%|
|6.||By way of discussion and appreciate the opinion of friends in accepting dissent.||l||10%|
|7.||Provide activities that support children’s character.||1||10%|
Source: Data compiled from the field.
Based on Table 1 above, it can be argued that the ways teachers in instilling character education to students in kindergarten, based on recordings of interviews can be presented in ways as follows. : (1) habituation-conditioning, (2) tells the story, (3) play a role, (4) sharing with peers, and (5) accept dissent.
- Most Effective Way in Instill the Character Education of Students in kindergarten
Based on the interview to the informant about how the most effective way to instill character education to students in kindergarten can be seen in Table 2 below.
Table 2 Most Effective The way to Instill the Character Education of Students Kindergarten
|No||Most Effective Way in Embedding Character Education||Number||Percentage|
|1.||Support parents to always teach character education||1||l0%|
|2.||Habituation-conditioning both at school and in the family environment, play time and learning time learners are guided to always speak the truth and appreciate friends.||5||50%|
|3.||Give examples to students with disciplinary action, protecting the environment (taking out the trash in place, etc.).||1||10%|
|4.||Still given / is associated with children’s daily activities.||2||20%|
|5.||Incorporate character education in the arts is directed to draw learners to describe good deeds, eg drawing of children throwing trash in its place.||l||10%|
Source: Data compiled from the field.
Based on the above Table 2, it can be argued that the most effective way to embed karaker education to students in kindergarten, more than half of the informants (70%) suggested the following ways: habituation-conditioning both at school and at home (50%) and performed with associated with daily activities of learners (20%).
- Difficulties Faced by Teachers in Teaching Character Education to Students in kindergarten.
Based on the interview to the informant about the difficulties faced by teachers in teaching character education to students in kindergarten can be seen in Table 3 below.
Table 3 Difficulties Faced by Teachers in Teaching Character Education to Students kindergarten
|No||Difficulties Faced by Teachers in Embedding Character Education||Number||Percentage|
|1.||A bit difficult, because they have repeatedly warned.||1||l0%|
|2.||Actually there is no difficulty, provided that the application must be balanced between character education at school and at home||3||30%|
|3.||Lack of family support in instilling character education is taught in schools, for example in accustom children to be independent, because often parents are always spoil the child, the imbalance caused by the character who taught school but not taught at home.||2||20%|
|4.||Sometimes the child’s ego unstable affect characters that are taught.||l||10%|
|5.||Therefore, children of different characters and have been formed in the family, so the child does not want to receive character education in schools.||l||10%|
|6.||One reason is the level of understanding learners different.||l||10%|
|7.||No, only occasionally because the various characters must be among one of the other learners monitored, guided and cared for.||l||10%|
Source: Data compiled from the field.
Based on Table 3 above, it can be argued that the difficulties faced by teachers in teaching character education to students in kindergarten half of informants (50%) suggests that cultivation of character education is not coordinated between the school and parents (family), as identified in research These include: the balance of the implementation of character education between school and at home (30%), and lack of family support in the cultivation of character education is taught in schools (20%).
Meanwhile, the other half (50%) the difficulty faced by teachers in teaching character education students in kindergarten are more likely on the identity of learners, such as: to be repeatedly reminded (10%), sometimes unstable ego affect children character is taught (10%), children of different characters and have been formed in the family (10%), the child does not want to receive character education in schools (10%), the level of understanding students of different (10%), various characters must be among one of the other learners monitored, guided and cared for (10%).
- Best Ways (Best Practice) which Ever Do Teachers in Schools in Embedding Character Education to Students in kindergarten and Seen as the Most Effective Practices
Based on the interview to the informant about the best way (best practice) that have been done in the school teachers in instilling character education to students in kindergarten can be seen in Table 4 below.
Table 4 Best Ways (Best Practice) which Ever Do Teachers in Schools in Embedding Character Education to Students in kindergarten and Seen as the Most Effective Practices
|No||Best way (Best Practice) which Ever Do Teachers in Schools in Embedding Character Education to Students in kindergarten||Number||Percentage|
|1.||Giving science activities (alternately sweet tea).||1||l0%|
|2.||That teachers followed by children, for example each entered the room to say hello and shake hands.||3||30%|
|3.||• Familiarize greetings, kiss hands, praying before and after activities, will
• Play a role and get children each finished learning activities are encouraged to wash their hands with soap which has been prepared.
|4.||To include learners to participate in a flag ceremony at the school.||3||30%|
Source: Data compiled from the field.
Based on Table 4 above, it can be argued that the best way (best practice) that have been done in the school teachers in instilling character education to students in kindergarten is: get children to say hello, kiss hands, praying before and after conducting and to include students in the ceremony.
- Suggestions / opinions / teacher opinions related to instill character education in schools, especially for students in kindergarten
Based on the interview to the informant about the advice / opinion / teacher opinions related to instill character education to students in kindergarten can be seen in Table 5 below.
Table 5 Suggestions / Opinions / Opinion Teacher Relating to Embedding Character Education in Schools, Especially For Students in kindergarten
|No||Suggestions / Opinions / Opinion Teacher Relating to Embedding Character Education in Schools, Especially For Students in kindergarten||Number||Percentage|
|1.||Character education should start early, especially for students in kindergarten.||2||20%|
|2.||Planting of character education for students in early childhood and kindergarten habituation to begin in the family and continues in school and community environments||4||40%|
|3.||Planting of character education in schools should be conducted every day continuously and sustainably in various ways / methods so that children are not bored to accept and children have character in line with expectations.||2||20%|
|Teachers are expected to always observe the development of learners for the sake of the quality of children’s education||l||10%|
|• Be a teacher who always idolized by the students
• Spoken word that polite / good.
• Always say thank you.
• Do not like to denounce the students / pupils etc.
Source: Data compiled from the field.
Based on Table 5 mentioned above, it can be put forward suggestions / opinions / teacher opinions related to planting of character education in schools, especially for students in kindergarten, among others, are that (1) character education must be instilled from an early age, (2) planting character education for students in kindergarten through habituation to begin in the family and continues in school and community environment, (3) planting of character education in schools should be carried out every day in a continuous and ongoing in various ways / methods so that children are not bored to accept and children have character in line with expectations, and (4) teachers are expected to always observe the development of learners for the sake of the quality of children’s education.
Based on the research findings, it is known that the method applied learning in character education in kindergarten Bhayangkari 97 Porong Sidoarjo, among others identified there are several learning methods that are often used by teachers the most dominant among other methods: (1) habituation, (2) storytelling and (3) play a role.
Habituation is one method often implemented by teachers in kindergarten Bhayangkari 97 Porong Sidoarjo in the teaching of character education. This finding is also consistent with that proposed by Simanjuntak (2012) that the provision of sample accompanied by habituation is appropriate to instill character in students. In day-to-day activities of the principal, teachers, administrative staff and even Supervisor Schools must be able to be a good example or model for students in the school.
Storytelling in this study according to the informant is a method of teaching character education the first priority order. Juhana (2013) suggested that among the teachers who are highly required to have good storytelling ability is a kindergarten teacher / RA / ECD. Therefore, at the time of kindergarten age, children more happy-happy was read storybooks. The power of imagination and fantasy in children will be more refined when the teacher often read a story or a fairy tale for kindergarten age is still considered the golden age. On this golden character values must be instilled through tales quality. Versatility a teacher in storytelling will make learners more excited and full of character. Mei-Ju, et al. (2014) in his research suggests one of the findings that fertilization kindergarten children in character education should naturally dikombina sikan with everyday life, and books as well as free playing time will be a very memorable and comfortable.
According Arriyani (2010) playing the role of giving children the opportunity to play a variety of roles in order for them to understand, respect and empathy roles that are around mreka and more positive attitudes in children. Based on research findings that have been described above, the method of play role is one method that is often applied by teachers. The study’s findings are consistent with results from studies Chou, Yang and Huang (2014) that the school (kindergarten) can hold meetings regularly parents or workshops for parents and the community.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the results of research and discussion above, it can be concluded as follows: (1) character education methods applied by teachers to students is by way of habituation, giving examples of good and exemplary behavior from teachers at the school; (2) learning methods are often used by teachers in character education is a method in order of priority: (a) tell you, (b) question and answer, (c) playing the role and (d) habituation-conditioning; (3) the difficulties faced by the majority of teachers in implementing character education in kindergarten are characteristics of learners are quite diverse; and (4) a solution to overcome the difficulties faced by teachers in implementing the learning method for character education in kindergarten is a way to habituation every day regarding the attitude and good behavior, giving exemplary and cooperation with parents through books and meetings held formal and informal school.
Based on the conclusions of the above, it can be put forward suggestions as follows: (1) character education should be integrated in the whole process of learning and activities in school and at home, (2) the planting of character education in schools in the implementation of character education needs cooperation between school and parents, so that the activities that have been carried out in the school teachers in instilling character education can be supported by parents in the home / family, (3) that the character education can be successful, there must be communication and cooperation between school and parents through communications that are considered most effective, namely the regular meetings between the school and parents, using liaison books, etc., and (4) for learners teacher or parent is a “model” for the child, therefore, teachers and people parents should be able to give a good example of exemplary behavior for students in kindergarten.
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