THE USE OF CLIENT CENTER APPROACH CAREER COUNSELING IN THE SCHOOL SETTING IN INDONESIA
PROSIDING || Proceedings of The International Conference on New Careers In New Era 5-6 Juli 2013 || ISBN: 978-979-8559-92-1 Penerbit : Adi Buana University Press Penulis : Aniek Wirastania
Client centered is an approach in counseling that has been widely used by counselors in the United States to address a wide range of career issues faced by the counselee. Client centered approach can also be used by counselors in the school setting in Indonesia. The use of the client centered career counseling in school settings in Indonesia has two reasons. The first reason is the match between the goal of client centered counseling with the BK goal of helping learners in order to have an understanding of his or hers (potential) and environment. Second, the role of client centered counselor as educator has in common with the context in Indonesia as a counselor educator who brings the mission values of the Indonesian people in the life of students.
Key Words : Client centered, carrier counseling, school setting
Career counseling service is a unity that can not be separated with the word guidance. Guidance and career counseling is a service that is seen as a response to the taxonomic problems that focus on difficulties in the selection of a job by applying specialized knowledge in the solution process.
Current career development and career counseling services performed with more emphasis on the individual by providing equal opportunity for awareness and occupational possibilities. A view can provide an opportunity for lifestyle choices and experiences related to individual career choices.
Developments in the world’s approach to career counseling when this happens so quickly and rapidly, in line with the needs and lifestyle changes that happen in people’s lives. One career counseling can be considered effective in helping counselees to overcome the problem is career counseling self-centered counselee. (client centered therapy career). This approach is client centered therapy provides the opposition to the trait and factor approach. Client centered approach to position “the self” is not only instrumental in the organizing concept, which is limited by personal characteristics as “I”, but also as the primary motivating force for self-actualization of one’s potential.
Career counseling client centered approach has been proven overseas career in addressing problems of students who have problems in self-directed career decision after they complete their education. Moon (2007) in his research has shown that career counseling client centered approach effective in tackling the problems of the learners career, which through the process of counseling the counselee can identify the skills and experience so that he can lead a person to the right career decisions.
Client-centered counseling services that have demonstrated effectiveness in overcoming career problems abroad can be an inspiration to career counseling organization in Indonesia. The use of client-centered therapy approach in a school setting in Indonesia can not be directly considered successful, because according to Patterson (2010) cultural factors very strong influence in the success of the counseling process, therefore, this article seeks to conduct a study on the use of client centered approach to therapy in the school setting in Indonesia, both advantages and disadvantages.
a. Understanding Client Centered Therapy
- client centered theraphy is an approach that aims to assist individuals in actualizing themselves. Client centered therapy is used in helping individuals to overcome problems surrounding a mismatch between self with information or experience possesses. Implementation of the counseling client centered therapy in counseling a career assist individuals very much which is problematic to overcome the problems in the process of actualizing it Counseling process career approach of client centered therapy done by way of counselor and counselee together-equally to try to seek and overcome mismatch between self and experiences counselees with world of work. Counselee strive developed the self-concept and his experiences against world of work that it faces at this time to forming a congruency between the two sections. Counseling career approach is client centered therapy that have the final result the counselee has the maturity and suitability regarding the concept self and concept of career, so that they can decide the option career which in accordance with the ability and experience of themselves.
Carl Rogers is famous because of the application of psychological therapy methods, namely: do not drive (nondirective) or also called counselee-centered therapy (client-centered therapy). This technique is widespread among school counselors, guidance counselors and social workers. Rogers is the first one who involves the research into the therapy session (using a tape recorder), which in the 1940s opened the session counselee to observe other people are still taboo. The method makes the use of people began to learn about the nature of psychotherapy and process operation.
Client centered approach to therapy is done by using the following model.
Career decision-making is done by making a diagnosis on the two issues are as follows.
a. immaturity (Immaturity) as lack of information or work experience.
b. Salahsuai (maladjustment) that the denial or distortion
When there is a discrepancy occurs within counselee, there will be problems of lack of information or experience in the world of work, self-efficacy, and concruency in the world of work and the individual, as well as distortion of information or information with the world of work or the individual.
According to Patterson (Suherman, 2010) the process of career counseling approach is client centered therapy as follows.
a. The first phase, there is a reluctant attitude in communicating themselves counselee, communication only goes about the external environment alone.
b. The second stage, the expression of the flow takes place in order to respond to, but not based on the self, but rather the coming issues comes into counselee. Experience is limited to the structure of the past.
c. The third stage, feeling relaxed but little attention to the conversation that took place and the relationship does not develop so deep.
d. The fourth stage, feeling self is an individual bond. There are still difficulties in expressing it.
e. The fifth stage, feelings are expressed freely at this stage.
f. The sixth stage, the self as an object disappear, nonconformity between experience and awareness of the feelings of life as it is missing. At this stage there is a problem that comes from the inside or from the outside, the counselee sees itself subjectively.
g. seventh stage, self counselee become more simple subject and reflect consciousness and experience.
Career counseling approach is client centered therapy provides the results of therapy appropriate restrictions made by the counselor and counselee. According to Patterson & Grummon (Suherman, 2010) stated that the original purpose of counseling or psychotherapy is client centered development process by weighing the counselee in the ultimate goal is to achieve self-actualization so that the counselee can decide which career option according to the self and the world of work experience as well as its information
Rogers became a pioneer of scientific research in counseling and psychotherapy. The approach used, among others, content analysis, rating scale, and Q tehniques.
1) Content Analysis
This therapy is a procedure to analyze verbalization counselee (recording, classifying, counting statement counselee) to test various hypotheses or propositions about the nature of personality, self-concept or to examine changes that occur in therapy.
2) Rating Scale
This method is used to examine the quality of the therapeutic relationship. Rating is done according to the free counselee what is perceived. Rogers group therapy techniques counselee-centered therapy.)
This therapy can be expressed in a simple exposure, but in practice it is very difficult to apply this technique. In short, the approach is centered on the idea that a person has a counselee vulnerable and anxious to develop his soul, they should make contact with a counselor who congruent and can create an atmosphere of unconditional acceptance and empathy which is accurate. But here is the difficulty, which is congruent counselor, receive unconditional positive, and empathic understanding are not easily found.
Counselee-centered counseling can be described in terms of when, if the conditions of counselor are congruent, receive unconditional positive and empathic can be created, then the therapeutic process goes smoothly. The smooth implementation of the counseling process, the result is expected to develop the counselee in the desired direction. Each counseling has unique problems, Rogers found several characteristics of its therapeutic process. Personality improvement process can be put in a very defensive continuum from being highly integrative divided into six stages, namely:
- Rejection of the relationship: the counselee does not want to communicate himself, in this case the counselee come to see a counselor but not to seek help, but for other reasons. They are very rigid, resistant to change, do not realize the problems they face and reject their own feelings and emotions.
- Acceptance physical relationship: Attitudes began to decrease stiffness in the counselee, they discuss external events and other people, but still not aware of his own feelings. They discuss their own feelings as an objective phenomena feeling.
- Acceptance of relations in certain areas: free counselee starts talking about himself, still as an object. Counselee talks about feelings and emotions that have past or future, not the feelings now. They are still hesitant in making a personal choice and refused to take responsibility for its own decisions.
- Receipt in full relationship: counselee starts receiving more freedom and responsibility than in the previous stage and began to dabble involve himself in relation to the therapist.
- The relationship became a part of the therapy: The counselee began to express his feelings at the time, although the symbol is not feeling right, and they began to evaluate in depth the feelings and discover fresh new thing in him.
The relationship can be fully functional: There was a dramatic growth in self counselees, where steadily approaching counselee functions intact or self-actualization. Consciousness to receive input prior experience freely denied or obscured.
Method applied by Rogers therapist, using Q techniques the assessment models to investigate the views of people about himself. Q or Q sort is self techniques rating, that may well arise defensiveness, businesses appear to be accepted, which is good, in the eyes of themselves and others. Q Sort can be implemented in various ways, depending on the specialization in question proposed by the examiner and adjusted to the things that are needed to be examined.
This method can reflect some important part in personality theory methods associated with this method include: analysis of variance, or analysis of the factors that can be used in analyzing the data obtained from the Q Sort method or rating scale.
c. Employment Information
The use of occupational information in career counseling client has centered equation as the basis for the interpretation of the test. According to Patterson (Suherman, 2010) states there are four principles of the use of information in career counseling client centered therapy, among others, as follows.
- Information included in the counseling process works if there is a need of something of the counselee. The underlying principle of this procedure is to receive counselee counselor as himself.
- Information is not used to affect the job or manipulate the counselee. Counselors can provide advice about career options by providing job information, but from the perspective of client-centered counseling, counselors should not persuade the counselee to consider certain jobs, which must be held principle is not to use the information in work evaluatively.
- The most objective way in providing employment information and a way that will maximize the initiative and responsibility by encouraging the counselee counselee is to obtain information from the original source, for example from a publisher, the work, the people involved in the work.
- The principle is to encourage the counselee through lack of clinging to the assumption of personal responsibility, rather than counselors gather further information to give to the counselee.
- Attitudes and feelings towards work counselee may be disclosed and dealt with therapeutic. Counselors not only provide objective aspect of the job information but also the subjective meaning of work for the counselee information
d. The Usage In School Setting In Indonesia
Career is a concept that runs throughout the life span. Career concept is a word that can reach prevocational activities such as school choice and schools, as well as post-vocational. The main thing to be considered in the implementation of career counseling is on continuity and discontinuity in the development of an individual’s career, the interaction between educational choices and occupational every time, and sequence occupations, jobs, and positions to do.
Guidance services and vocational counseling would be more effective when implementing services as a counselor looked based on longitudinal and developmental terms. Perspective based on longitudinal and developmental aspects in preparation for an individual to be able to anticipate the behavior choices and build a career maturity, do not wait for the onset of a problem but directly take action for the sake of career development.
Client-centered counseling approach is essentially rooted in a set of attitudes and beliefs are addressed by counselors to counselees. Client centered approach is done in order to facilitate the development of the counselee, self-adjustment and self-actualization counselee counselee, where each is expressed or showed her humanity and participate in the growth experience. This approach is client centered starting point on the individual’s current state (here and now) instead of past experience. The main focus in this counseling is the adjustment between the actual self and the ideal self.
The main target of client centered is on the emotional aspects and not in terms of its intellectual feelings. An active role held by counselee, whereas attitude must be demonstrated by a counselor is passive reflective, where the counselor is not merely silent and passive, but actively trying to help the counselee overcome the problems it faces today.
Career counseling client centered approach has been proven overseas career in addressing problems of students who have problems in self-directed career decision after they complete their education. Moon (2007) in his research has shown that career counseling client centered approach effective in tackling the problems of the learners career, which through the process of counseling the counselee can identify the skills and experience, so that he can lead a person to the right career decisions.
In line with studies conducted by Carl Rogers as the inventor of this approach demonstrated the success in addressing the problems faced by the counselees.
Career counseling client centered approach has advantages when compared with using a career counseling approach to other models. At a counseling process basically counselee alone determine the purpose of the implementation of a counseling process, and as for the counselor’s task is only to help the counselee to be better in solving the problem, to achieve the goals to be achieved in the counseling process, and in order to return to the self-actualization tackle barriers that interfere in the activities of actualizing themselves.
It is more specifically can liberate trapped by the counselee of behavior (he learned) time, where it is that makes him an advanced counterfeit and an individual who experienced an interruption in actualizing his activities.
Career counseling client centered approach has advantages when compared with other counseling approaches. Client centered approach that is non-directive. A nature counselor educators and learners develop the personality of the view that every human being has the same potential. This characteristic is in accordance with the guidance and counseling in Indonesia, which is in the area of education.
Another advantage of this approach is client centered goal that refers to the ability to be able to actualize his counselee. Client-centered counseling career goal is very much in line with the desired counseling process of counseling in order to make an Independent learner. (ABKIN, 2007). Another advantage of the technique of career counseling is client-centered therapy technique that can be used in individual or group counseling.
Counseling processes and techniques appropriate to the implications of client-centered approach that is instigated by Carl Rogers is as follows.
- The counselee feels comfortable with the counselor, because counselors have never responded negatively.
- The counselee as possible are encouraged to use the pronoun “I”.
- The counselee is encouraged to look at the experiences of a more realistic angle.
- The counselee to express feelings that he really felt.
- The counselee is encouraged to come back to him.
- Characteristics of counselors
- Receiving unconditional positive (unconditioning positive regard), and
Implications of the use of client-centered approach in career counseling activities are as follows.
- Determine the level of self-actualization as the beginning of understanding the behavior of the test could be used was made by Rogers.
- Creating a counseling situation as a democratic situation and prioritize personal relationships in order to achieve a sense of security.
- Counselors should develop empathy
- Counseling should be aimed at developing a personal orHumans have the potential.
- the technique could be developed non-directive
- Counselors must be sensitive to the values held counselee.
- Because a deviant behavior is influenced by the environment, the counselor must understand the environment counselee.
Implications of the theory proposed by Carl Rogers gave tremendous input in the field of guidance and counseling, in the implementation process of counseling the counselee can make it easier to find the way of solving the problems, which this would make it easier in the counselee actualization to himself . This counseling technique will make a counselee to be able create the hierarchy of needs, so that the counselee may be necessary to prioritize the needs of the moment.
According to Rogers (1951), the conceptual career counseling client centered approach emphasizes only indirectly and provides additional system of psychotherapy that is more common. Additionally Rogers talked just a little career decision-making process, because he prefers the social and emotional adjustment of one’s functioning.
The downside of a career counseling approach is client centered minimal explanation of the role of information in helping the counselee, or if we resist the terminology theory, the role of information in the self-actualization. The theory in question in this context is that the theory assumes that individuals interact continuously with their environment and distinguish new aspects of the environment in an effort to meet their needs.
The conclusions can be made based on the description of the use of client-centered approach to career counseling in school settings in Indonesia are as follows.
- Role of client centered counselor has the same context with the counselor in Indonesia that has a mission of cultural values of the nation in the counselee life.
- Centered approach to career counseling clients in accordance with the guidance and counseling goal is to create independent learners. This condition can be seen in the steps of counseling with emphasis on actualizing self-learners.
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